Early Chronology of the West


Table of Contents
Neolithic .
Chalcolithic.
Early Bronze.
Early Dynasty
Old Kingdom
Intermediate Bronze.
1st Intermediate Period
Middle Bronze.
Middle Kingdom
2nd Intermediate Period - Hyksos
Late Bronze
New Kingdom
Hittite Empire
Late Bronze Age Collapse (LBAC) - Sea Peoples
Iron Age.
3rd Intermediate Period.
Assyria.
Babylonia.
Late Period
Persia.
Macedonia.
Ptolemaic Egypt
Rome.
Roman/Byzantine Egypt
Fall of the Roman Empire.

NOTES/ MAP SCHEMATICS.



10,200 - 4,500 : Neolithic Era / Neolithic Revolution.


Discoveries: wheat seeds can be stored for later use, rivers can be diverted, canals constructed

10,000 BC - first farmers [ ecifm ]

9,000 BC - Jericho (southern Levant) - first of 20 settlements, near the start of the Holocene .

7,090 - Jarmo (Iraqi Kurdistan) - "one of the oldest agricultural communities" - discovered 1940

7,500 - 5,700 BC - Çatal Hüyük (Anatolia) - best-preserved Neolithic site. - excavated, 1958.

6,000 BC - Farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe about 8,000 years ago. [ sailer ]

5500 - small tribes settle in the Nile valley

4,500 - 3,500 : Copper Age (Chalcolithic).

EGYPT   SUMER Events
4400 - 3000 Naqada culture.

the Badari,
the Amratian (Naqada I)
the Gerzeh (Naqada II)
3,500 - mud-brick building at Hierakonpolis - one of the oldest on earth

With 4 million bricks and 16 million joints, its irregular construction has saved it from earthquakes and ground settling.
4,560-4,450 -
the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria - oldest gold treasure - religion, the afterlife, social status, and
"oldest known burial evidence of an elite male" --
He "held a war adze or mace and wore a gold penis sheath."
Ubaid Period - "marked by a distinctive style of fine quality painted pottery"

South - 6,500-3,800

Ur
- 3,800

North - 5,300 - 4,300
4000 - "Marija Gimbutas claims the transition to male dominance began in Europe."

3 states in Upper Egypt:
Thinis
Naqada, and Nekhen.

The Early Bronze Age : 3,500-2,200

NEWS FLASH from new DNA studies! - 2,500 BC

Nomadic sheepherders from western Russia, the Yamnaya, arrived.
Their language may have given rise to European languages.
These are the Proto-Indo-Europeans, who used to be called the Aryans. [ sailer - 06/2015 ]


They carried a genetic mutation that allowed adults to tolerate drinking cow’s milk.
Basque may be the only surviving relic of an earlier language. [ daily mail - 06/2015 ]


EGYPT constructions [ list ] Events SUMER Events
      4,000-3,100 - Uruk Period.

3500 - Uruk - first true city.
 
3200-3100 - Naqada III aka
Proto-dynastic,
Dynasty 0.

Era of Two Kingdoms:

Lower (red crown, less sophisticated )
&
Upper (white crown, superior culture)
  Nekhen
(Hierakonpolis, city of the hawk)
religio-political capital of
Upper Egypt in Predynasty.

Ivory labels of Dynasty 0, found at Abydos, have sound signs, like modern alphabets.
3400-3100 - late Uruk period aka Protoliterate Period
The Sumerians had an accounting system of simple pictures and numbers. [TDC]

3000 - Sumerian cuneiform, "the earliest known writing" [HC]
Early Dynasty (Archaic)

Dynasty 1 - 3100 - 2886
Dynasty 2 - 2890 – 2686
Egyptian kings buried in shallow pits,
letting the natural de-moisturizers of the desert sands preserve the body
    EDP - Sumerians build the earliest ziggurats - homes for a city's patron god.
Narmer or Menes - 3100 -
king of upper kingdom
conquers the lower kingdom,
creating the
United Kingdom

wears the pschent, a double crown on the Narmer Palette
[Dynasty 1 #1]

kings used mud-brick mastabas at Abydos,
the city of Osiris,
for their crypts

The Narmer Palette at Hierakonpolis - "first historical document in the world."

Narmer defeats the "Papyrus People" of the Delta and secures Mediterranean trade routes.

Hierarchies: pharaoh, vizier, scribes, great wife, 2nd wives, concubines
  3100 - Battle of the Papyrus People
Hor-Aha (Menes' son)
moves capital from Abydos to Memphis, world's largest city
  The pharaoh's favorites got to join him in the afterlife.
"Hor-Aha's grave has the earliest retainer sacrifice."
   

Old Kingdom of Egypt : 2,686 - 2,181 (505 years)

EGYPT Events SUMER / AKKAD. constructions [ list ] Events
Old Kingdom

Dynasty 3 - 2686 - 2613
Dynasty 4 - 2613 - 2494
Dynasty 5 - 2494 - 2345
Dynasty 6 - 2345 - 2181
  Jemdet Nasr Period -
3100-2900

Early Dynastic Period - 2900- 2334

Enmebaragesi of Kish - 2600
  2800 - "Semitic Akkadian language first attested in proper names of the kings of Kish "
2700 BC, "cuneiform represents syllables of spoken Sumerian."

Zoser
Djoser

2667-2648

[Dyn 3 #1]

renowned as wise and pious, he became the model for all following Pharaohs

Zoser elevated Ra, the sun-god, over Osiris.

Ritual of rejuvenation for the king brings prosperity to the whole country and demonstrates no need to kill the king when he dodders, as some barbaric peoples did.

Imhotep, author of Edwin Smith Papyrus [ from a copy of 1500]

  step pyramid at Saqqara;
oldest cut-stone building,
3 1/2 miles of tunnels below
and a huge underground chamber.

Imhotep, the architect

imitates primal mound
that arose from chaos.
100 pyramids built, and
"all the pyramids were robbed" - Hawass.
So why doesn't this failure of security, which defeats the purpose of the pyramid, detract from the genius of the architects?
[Dyn 3 - last pharaohs ]     Buried Pyramid.
Layer Pyramid.
 
Sneferu (Snefru)
2613–2589 
[Dyn 4 #1]

chief wife: Hetepheres I,
his half-sister, because his mother was a minor queen.

Incest becomes routine.

"When we think
of pyramids, we think
of the Fourth Dynasty."

Isis and Osiris: sibling spouses.
Incest imitaties the Gods,
a main concern of the Pharaohs.

Sneferu addresses peasants
as "my friend" or "my brother."

Fights the B.O. of dancing girls: cone-hats of scented fat to melt all night - first time-released accoutrements
1st Dynasty of Lagash -
2500-2270
Eannatum of
Lagash
.

Eannatum "introduced the use of terror as a weapon against his enemies."
3 pyramids in Dahshur:

1 Maidum / Snefru endures - burial chamber inside - pyramid collapsed

2 Bent / Snefru shines in the South - discarded.

3 Red / Snefru shines in the North - first stable & straight-sided pyramid.
[Terror vs. dancing girls?

We're done here.

The creators of civilization
are no longer a mystery.]
Khufu
(Cheops, son of Snefru)

2589–2566
[Dyn 4 # 2]
    Khufu's horizon at Giza

"a miracle of logistics" & the base never more than 1/2° off, "geometric perfection" [AHC]

tallest until Eiffel Tower.
The building of
Khufu's Great Pyramid
"proves ruinous to the economy." He sold his own daughters into prostitution, quips Herodotus.
Djedefre
(Radjedef, son of Khufu)
c. 2566-2558
[Dyn 4 #3]
married his half-sister,
Hetepheres II
first Sa-Rê ('Son of Ra'); first to connect his cartouche name with the sun god Ra. c. 2550 -
Standard of Ur -
mosaic of war and peace
Star tent of Djedefre
(most beautiful, ruined)

mortuary temple at Abu Rawash.

The Lost Pyramid (THC) has two hours hosted by Zahi Hawass. Interesting for the mad "deductions" of the Victorian archaeologist, Chassinat.

Khafra , Khafre
(Chephren, son of Khufu)

2558–2532 
[Dyn 4 #4]
    Khafra is great -
2nd largest pyramid at Giza
& Great Sphinx
(oldest monumental sculpture).
 
Baka (Bikheris) - 2532 ?
[Dyn 4 #5]
       
Menkaure
(Mycerinus, son of Khafre)
c. 2532-2503

[Dyn 4 #6]
    Menkaure is godlike -
3rd pyramid at Giza

a fraction of the size of
previous pyramids
indigenous
Akkadian-speaking Semites
invade Sumer.
They control Mesopotamia,
the Levant, and parts of Iran.
Shepseskaf
(relation unknown)
c. 2503-2499 [Dyn 4 #7]
One whole dynasty - and no wars.   finishes Menkaure's pyramid  
Djedefptah (Thamphthis)
c. 2500 ?
[Dyn 4 #8]
       
Userkaf
2494-2487
[Dyn 5 #1 - founder]
Ra has become a major god, identified with the midday sun. Mesh-Ane-pada - 2400s.
first king of Ur.
The pure sites of Userkaf ,
El-Haram el-Maharbish,
the "Heap of Stone"
 
Sahure
2487–2475
[Dyn 5 # 2]

Dynasty 5 has 9 Pharaohs
  Semitic-speaking Akkadians move into Mesopotamia, north of Sumeria. The soul of Sahure appears,
"milestone in Egyptian tomb architecture."
 
Pepi I
2332 – 2283 (D6)

Merenre
2283-2278 (D6)

Pepi II -
2278-2184 (D6)
Myth of Osiris, Isis, Horus
has basic form - 2300s
Akkadian Empire Period
2334-2218

Sargon of Akkad -
the Great,
2334–2279
began by conquering
Sumerian city-states
The beauty of Pepi
may endure
.

The beauty of Merenre
appears
(ruined).

Pepi is established and living
" first to create a multi-ethnic, centrally ruled empire"
  • mother set him adrift in a basket in the reeds
  • From Sumer to Turkey,
  • he standardized weights & measures over all of it.
  • "first professional standing army" before T-P III.
  • supported it with plunder
King Netjerkare Siptah
or Queen Nitocris
2184-2181

(D 6 #7-last, or D 7-8 # 1)

"Although male, Netjerkare Siptah is most likely the same person as the female ruler Nitocris mentioned by Herodotus and Manetho."
  2154: Akkadian Empire falls to raiders from the Zagros Mountains in Persia

Later: Two Akkadian-speaking nations:
Assyria, and, a few centuries later,
Babylonia in the south.
What construction could be greater than the first trans-gendered she-male?

"Tennessee Williams' 1928 short story "The Vengeance of Nitocris", details the queen's revenge.
Sargon's capital, Akkad, was destroyed at the end of his Empire, and has never been found. Hence, no documents from his period survive.


The Intermediate Bronze Age : 2,200 - 2,000

EGYPT SUMER constructions [ list ] Events
1st Intermediate Period
2181-2055 (126 years)

Dynasty 7 & 8 - 2181-2160
Dynasty 9 - 2160 - 2130
Dynasty 10 - 2130 - 2055 (lower kingdom)
Dynasty 11 - 2134-2069 (upper at Thebes)
Sumerian Renaissance -
2047-1940

the 3rd dynasty of Ur
under
Ur-Nammu - c. 2047-2030
Shulgi - 2029-1982
Pyramid of Ibi (c. 2170)

Pyramid of Khui (c. 2150)

Flourishing are the abodes of Merikare.
(c. 2040)
Shulgi completes
Great Ziggurat of Ur.

The Middle Bronze Age : 2,000 - 1,550

EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLON constructions Events
Middle Kingdom,
2055-1650
[Period of Reunification]

Dynasty 11 - 2061-1991
Dynasty 12 - 1991-1802, "brilliant"

Two concurrent Dynasties
evidence of Disunification,
leading to 2nd Intermediate:

Dynasty 13 - 1803-1649 (Memphis)
Dynasty 14 - 1805-1690 (Avaris)
  2000 - wild, barbaric Amorites descend on Mesopotamia,
only to assimilate to urbanity by 1900. [HC]
  Amorites:
Semitic-speaking invaders from Syria, not native Akkadians,

they seem barbaric to the Mesopotamians,
living in tents, not burying their dead with dispatch,
not cooking their food,
Mentuhotep II
of Thebes
2046-1995 [ D11]
2007- reunited Egypt.
      Amon becomes patron god of Thebes.
Amenemhat I
1991-1962 - D12 #1

a vizier, he sacked his predecessor
Sargon I
1920-1881
Amorites have founded dynasties in Isin, Larsa, Eshnunna, Babylon Amenemhat appears at his place. "brilliant" D12 (1991-1803) was Middle Kingdom "Golden Age"
Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion
Senusret I - 1971-1926     Senusret beholds the 2 lands  
Amenemhat II - 1929-1895
    Amenemhat is provided -
now a pile of rubble
 
Senusret III / "Sesostris"
- 1878-1839

strongest of D12,

deified in his own life.
    work on Canal of the Pharaohs - 1

remarkably realistic sculptures show worry, concern, and age

extensive fortifications, like the Buhen super fort, now under Lake Nasser.
Sesostris's goals: secure southern border and plunder the maximum Nubian gold

The Kermins of Nubians had expert archers, "the pupil-shooters."

Sesostris launched a campaign of terror .
Amenemhat III
1860-1814
"golden age of Middle Kingdom"
  Babylonian
Dynasty 1
(Amorite)

1830 - 1531
Amenemhat is beautiful (Black Pyramid) / also Amenemhat lives. Now the Amorites have taken over
the Greatest City in the World.
Amenemhat IV - 1815-1806

Queen Sobekneferu
1806-1802
[D12 #8 - last]

"brilliant" 12th Dynasty ends
  Sumu-abum
or Su-abu,
1830-1817
S. Mazghuna pyramid.

N, Mazghuna pyramid.
 
Ameny Qemau
c. 1790
Shamshi-
Adad I

1809-1776
Sumu-la-El,
1817-1781
Pyramid of Ameny Qemau. Nineveh for Ishtar-worship
    Sabium
1781-1767
   
Khendjer
[Dyn 13 #21]
1764-1759
  Apil-Sin,
1767-1749
Pyramid of Khendjer.  
Neferhotep I - 1750s - D13   Sin-muballit,
1748-1729
   
Dynasty 14
chronology is most uncertain,
even the names
  Hammurabi
1728-1686,
King # 6
conquers Assyria,
controls all
Mesopotamia
1754 - Code of Hammurabi -
Babylon - "first civilization to have a written legal code."
The stele has 282 legal verdicts.
Hammurabi "single-handedly creates a legendary city"

Re-conquers almost all of Sargon's empire,
but he wants to be loved, not feared -
so he creates the idea of "justice" [HC]
    Samsu-iluna,
son of Hammurabi,
1686—1648
loses control of Assyria
  Kassites first Invade Babylonia

2nd Intermediate Period of Egypt : 1650 - 1550 (100 years)

EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLON Israelites construction Events
Dynasty 15 - Hyksos:
Lower @ Avaris;

Dynasty 16 & Dynasty 17
Upper @ Thebes
  Abi-eshuh,
1648—1620
Jericho razed,
1650-1500
Kenyon
confirmed
in 1995 by radiocarbon dating
  Hyksos, Asians from Canaan & Syria introduce new weapons -- horse-drawn war chariot and composite bow.

"This invasion of hermetically-sealed Egypt
shook Egypt to the core, changing Egypt forever
."
Egypt had to respond to the arms race.
It will create a defensive empire and
seek revenge on the Northerners. [rag]
Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef aka Inref V  
1573-1571
  Ammi-ditana,
1620-1583
1628: Santorini Eruption - radiocarbon dating    
Kamose,
1555-1550,
last of Dyn. 17
  Ammi-saduqa
1582-1562
    Ammi-saduqa's Venus tablet is astronomy

The Late Bronze Age (LBA): 1,550 - 1,150

EGYPT ASSYRIA HITTITES BABYLON Israelites. Artifacts/Docs Events
New Kingdom -
1550-1077
(473 years)


Dynasty 18 -
1543-1293
Dynasty 19 -
1292-1187
Dynasty 20 -
1187-1064

  Hittite Empire

1600 - 1178
(422 years)

at Hattusa.
Amorite Dynasty ends

3rd Dynasty
(Kassite)
1531 - 1155 :

rules Babylon
376 years
never in Egypt;
no wandering in the desert;
never took Canaan by war; they were Canaanites;
United Kingdom was a backwater -- say F&S.
  Amon expands beyond Thebes to
the whole nation as Amon-Ra:
virtual monotheism :
other gods manifestations of him
Ahmose I ,
1539-1514
drives out Hyksos,
founds Dynasty 18,
blood-kin until usurper, Ay.
Ashur-nirari I
1534-1509
Hattusili I
1586-1556

Mursili I
1556-1526

1531 - sacks Babylon,
1526 - assassinated
Samsu
-Ditana

1562-1531,
last Amorite King
1550: Santorini Eruption - archaeology Pyramid of Ahmose -
a cenotaph,
not a tomb -
only rubble remains
Ahmose builds his own war chariots.

The Kassites, foreigners like Hyksos in Egypt, took over after the sack of Babylon. "Their 500-year reign laid groundwork for Babylonian culture"
Amenhotep I
1526-1506
Amon is pleased”
(Dyn 18 #2)
  next 65 years; flurry of short-lived kingships   1500 BC - Jericho razed,
dated by Kathleen Kenyon
  1500-1200 (LBA):
Legend of King Keret of Ugarit,
brings cities down with marches and trumpet blasts.
Thutmose I
1506-1493
[ Thoth-Born ]
(Dyn 18 #3)
  kingdom is weak and divided   1446 : early biblical date for exodus
(1 Kings 6:11)
No more Pyramids

Thutmose I, first buried in the Valley of
the Kings
.
 
Thutmose II
1493-1479
(Dyn 18 #4)

son of Thutmose I & Mutnofret
wife: Hatshepsut, half-sister
  conquered lands to east and west are lost       Hatshepsut: "the first great woman in history," says James Breasted.

1480: Period of greatest Egyptian expansion (4th Nile cataract to Euphrates).
Hatshepsut
1479–1458
(Dyn 18 #5)

[dtr of Thutmose I & Ahmes]
wears strap-on beard & hides feminine curves
Puzur-Aššur III
1503-1479
  Burna-
Buriash I

1500 -
treaty with
P-A III
  (1) opposite Luxor is
(2) the Theban Necropolis.
There she built (3) Deir el-Bahari and
(4) twin obelisks at Temple of Karnak.
Senenmut, a commoner, is Hatshepsut's architect : an obscene graffito of them.

Zahi Hawass: Senenmut built Deir el-Bahari out of love.

She vanished one year after Senenmut. Her tomb has been found, but not her body.
Thutmose III

1479-1458
his mother,
a harem girl
(Dyn 18 #6)

co-regent w. Hatshepsut

1458-1425
sole ruler

[son of
Thutmose I
& Iset]
  Telipinu,
ca. 1460

stops the chaos,
by banishing, not executing, the killers of his wife and son.

[pre-Jesus?]

"By the 14th century, before the cult of Yahweh had reached Israel, groups of
Edomites and Midianites worshipped
Yahweh as their god."
[ Shasu - q. v. ]

The Edict of Telepinu .makes rules for orderly succession

Hittite law based
on compensation, not retribution -
most advanced system

Telipini signs first Hittite peace treaty

He destroyed Hatshepsut's statues & monuments, and removed her name from records.

1457 - Battle of Megiddo
vs. Mitanni and Canaanites
Thutmose had a transportable chariot,
rest-stops for water and supplies.
Defies generals, crossed mountains for a surprise attack.
But - his troops stopped to loot;
so a one day siege became 7 months.

"first battle recorded with relatively reliable detail."

Egypt's "sphere of influence" at its largest extent ever.
Amenhotep II
1427-1401
(Dyn 18 #7)
Ashur-bel-
nisheshu
-
1407-1398
Muwatalli I
c. 1400
Karaindaš
c. 1410
     
Thutmose IV
1401-1391
(Dyn 18 #8)
  Tudhaliya I       made Dream Stele to justify his unexpected kingship.
Amenhotep III -
the Magnificent
1391-1353
(Dyn 18 #9)

Chief Queen Tiye,
a commoner.

Says that "the Hitties are finished."

Middle Assyrian Empire
1392-934

 

Tudhaliya II
1360-1344

Hitties attacked from all four directions - keep only their central core, lose possessions again.
Kurigalzu I
died 1375

Kadashman-Enlil I
1374-1360

Kassite king, known contemporary
of
Amenhotep III
1400 - Jericho razed,
- as dated by John Garstang

Also, by some, "the accepted biblical date of the conquest."
  "unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour."

Having no war to fight, no traditional path to glory,
A III declares himself a god, the Aten, "shining sun disk," begins largest construction job since the Pyramids.

He began the religious reform that his son too to its climax.

[ Temples of Power - YouTube ]
Akhenaten
1353-1336
(Dyn 18 #10)

starts Amarna Period

(Amenhotep IV,
son of Amenhotep III
and Queen Tiye)

Nefertiti,
royal wife,
has only daughters.

The heretic of Atenism
Ashur-uballit I
1366-1330

takes Mitanni
Empire
Tudhaliya III
1344

Suppiluliuma I
1344-1322
restores lost lands

Hittite Empire
at its height
.

[Suppiluliuma
is not Shalmaneser]
Kurigalzu II
1332-1308 -
put in power
by
Ashur-uballit
  Wrote Great Hymn of Aten (Psalm 104)

Built a new new city with speed, using talatats, small limestone blocks his architects invented.
Shut down, refused to fund, all other cults
Tried to deface all inscriptions to Amon

Even as he brought people and priests together in the courtyard for services,
he cared little for the people, who kept the old gods,
and worried: If no Osiris, who will resurrect the dead?

Neglected foreign affairs, trade missions,
ignored letters from outposts requiring assistance
concentrating on his new realistic art
- the first absurdism -
leaving no grateful people to carry on after him.
Smenkhkare
1335-1334
(Dyn 18 #11)
           
Neferneferuaten
c. 1334-1332
(Dyn 18 #12)
           
Tutankhamen
1332-1323
Dyn 18 #13

father: Akhenaten
mother: sister of Akhenaten,
the Younger Lady

wife: a daughter of Nefertiti, and so a half-sister.
Enlil-nirari
1330-1319
Tut's widow seeks son of Suppiluliuma to marry - He is killed en route.     Tut moved the capital back to Thebes. Tut's widow Ankhe-sen-amen
asks Suppiluliuma for a son to marry,
but the son is ambushed.

1922 - Howard Carter discovered
his nearly intact tomb
"underneath the remains of workmen's huts
built during the Ramesside Period."
Ay: 1323-1319,
father of Nefertiti
(Dyn 18 #14)
  Arnuwanda II
1322-1321
plague death
      Ay was Akhenaten's vizier, not a royal.

Horemheb
1319-1292

[Dyn. 18 #15 - last]

end Amarna Period.

  Mursili II
1321-1295

His wife was Gassulawiya.
      Horemheb was Akhenaten's military commander, not a royal,
so he married the sister of Nefertiti,
another non-royal
He began a campaign of damnatio memoriae against Akhenaten.

AN IRONY, AT LAST:
Horemheb dismantled Akhenaten's temples and used the stones for landfill so that they are well-preserved and can be reconstructed.
Ramesses I
1292-1290
a noble, not a royal
(Dyn. 19 #1)
ruled 1 year, 6 months
Adad-nirari I
1295-1263



   
Job # 1: establish order in Egypt; sovereignty over Canaan & Syria; and bring back Amon-Ra.

1200s - Egypt "the dominant power in the world" - border with Canaan fortified and tightly controlled. (F&S)
Seti I

(son of R I,
father of II)

1290-1279
"great warrior pharaoh"

ruled 11 years
        Great Hypostyle Hall
at Karnak -- 134 columns -- built from plans of Hatshepsut

Egyptians wanted big rooms, could not master interior space, so had forests of large columns. (van Siclen)
Seti's list of pharaohs omits Akhenaten.

an argument
At Karnak, Seti details victory over Shasu,
a people of southern Canaan
when the Israelites emerged.
The Shasu lived in "YHW."
The Bible calls this territory Midian,
where Moses lived for 40 years,
seeing Yahweh as a burning bush.
So Israel got Yahweh from the Shashu.
Ramesses II - the Great
1279-1213

8 Great Royal Wives:
Nefertari (his beloved),
Isetnofret,

"His Empire too big to attend to personally."

Greek Ozymandias

reigned 67 years,
3x life expectancy

After him, Egypt's long decline.
Shalmaneser I
1263-1234, 1274-1245
built
Nimrud.

Tukulti-Ninurta I
1243–1207

Battle of Nihriya - 1237 - T-N beats Hittites

1225 (?) -
T-N takes Babylon

Muwatalli II
1295-1272

Mursili III & Urhi-Teshub
1272-1267

Hattusili III
1267-1237
peace treaty with R II, wife Puduhepa

Tudhaliya IV
1237-1209


Kashtiliash IV
1232-1225
Kassite king
JoshuaBiblical dating: 1355-1245

Ramesses II
built his capital, "The House of Ramesses"
in the Delta, say Egyptian records, referred to in the Bible.

1200s :
late biblical date for exodus
(Exodus 1:11)
Abu Simbel temple
[copper chisels on limestone],
moved for Aswan Dam Reservoir.

Hypostyle Hall
at Karnak

The Ramesseum,
his mortuary temple

KV5, largest complex in Valley of Kings

Apology of Hattusili, "an early autobiography."
1274 - Battle of Kadesh - Ramesses II vs Muwatalli II.

a draw -- Egyptian and Hittite versions, the most detailed account of an ancient battle

1258: signs with Hittites first peace treaty in history.

most children, temples, & monuments of the pharaohs

At Abu Simbel, he worships himself as a god.
Nefertari: "the woman by whom the North Wind blows".

Merneptah
1213-1203
(Dyn 19 #4)

13th son of Ramesses II,
mother: Isetnofret
Ashur-nadin-apli
1207-1204
Arnuwanda III
1209-1207
    1208 - Merneptah's stele - victory over Sea Peoples - first and only mention of a tribe in ancient Egypt:

"Israel has been shorn; its seed no longer exists."
 
Seti II - 1203-1197

Queen Twosret -
1191-1189
(Dyn 19 #8 - last)
Ashur-nirari III
1203-1198
         
Setnakhte - 1189-1186
(Dyn. 20 #1)
unrelated to previous rulers - usurper.
  Suppiluliuma II
1207-1178
last Hittite king
      1180 - Trojan War, traditional date

The Late Bronze Age Collapse (LBAC):
1,200 - 1,150
[ Wiki ] or 1,200 - 900 [ Wiki ] [ Wiki ] [ Wiki ]

Eric Cline, a cable history stalwart, has a new book: 1177 BC : The Year Civilisation Collapsed (2014)
The Cause? The Sea Peoples

EGYPT ASSYRIA HITTITES BABYLON Israelites. Events
Ramesses III
son of Setnakhte
1186-1155

last great king of Egypt
"full Assyrian
supremacy over Mesopotamia
"
1178 -
Sea Peoples end
Hittite Empire -
422 years


few "neo-Hittite"
city-states survive
2 Dynasty
of Isin

1155-1026

[native rule]
LEGEND:
charismatic leaders,
"judges,"
lead
Hebrew tribes
Delta Sea Battle - 1175
Ramesses III repulses
The Sea Peoples,
a term for nine tribes,
"but the kingdom never recovers."
(Cline).
Ramesses IV - 1155-1149
Ramesses V - 1149-1145
Ramesses VI - 1145-1137
Ramesses VII - 1137-1129
Ramesses VIII - 1130-1129
Ramesses IX - 1129-1111
Ramesses X - 1111-1107
Tiglath-Pileser I
1114-1076

makes Assyria "leading power of Middle East
for next 500 years"
  Nebuchadnezzar I

(Ninurta-nādin-šumi)
1126-1103
2 Isin king #4

N I recovers idol
of Marduk from
Elam.
  "no surprise that all the pharaohs of the 20th Dynasty called themselves Ramesses."

1100s: Arameans first appear in texts
(Jacob a wandering Aramean)

1000: domesticated camels as beasts of burden in common usage
Ramesses XI - 1107-1078
[ Dyn. 20 #10 - last]
        Ramesses XI was "losing his grip on the city of Thebes" at the end of his reign
1077 -
End of Egyptian New Kingdom
         


1,150 - 586 - The Iron Age

Third Intermediate Period of Egypt : 1,069 - 664 (405 years)

EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLON CANAAN Artifacts Events
3rd Intermediate Period - 1069-664

Dyn. 21 (united) 1077-943

Dyn. 22 (lower) 943-716
Dyn. 23 (upper) 880-728

Dyn. 24 (Nubian) 732-720
Dyn. 25 (Kushite) 760-656
  Dynasty 22: Bubastite (city of Bubastis)

Dynasty 23: Meshwesh Libyan kings

Dynasty 25: reunited Nile Valley
    In Babylon, "decline and political instability, marked by division of the state for much of the period and conquest and rule by foreigners."

Smendes
1077-1051 [D21 - #1]

Amenemnisu - 1051-1047
Pinedjem I (co-regent)

Psusennes I - 1047-1001
[tomb intact in 1940]

Ashur-bel-kala
1074-1056

loses colonies to Arameans
Adad-apla-iddina
1067-1046

Nabû-šuma-libūr
1033-1026
2 Isin king #11
Babylonia overrun by Aramean tribesmen

Samuel - last judge

United Monarchy
1050-930

Saul -
1042-1010
  [contrary view] no United Kingdom -
always two (p. 149)

Amenemope - 1001-992
[tomb intact in 1940]

Osorkon the Elder - 992-986
Siamen - 986-967
Assyrian
Dark Ages

1055-936
1026-911 - Babylonian Chaos David -
1010-970
c. 1000 - The Zayit Stone
inscribed with a complete Paleo-Hebrew abecedary
[Ron Tappy]
No David or Solomon in royal correspondence of the time. (p 129)

No name appears in the Bible more than David

Psusennes II - 967-943

[D21 - #8 - last]

    Solomon -
971-931
  "There is no archaeological evidence for Solomon's Temple; no mention of it in the contemporary extra-biblical literature." - Wiki

The Bible's detailed plans for the Temple
resemble a temple at Ain Dara in Syria.
Guarding both temples are sphinxes,
called cherubim in Jerusalem.

The Temple for the One God, same as
the Temple for the Many Gods
.

Assyria takes out Samaria

EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLON ISRAEL JUDAH Artifacts Events
  Neo-Assyrian
Empire

911-609
Assyrian rule
of Babylon
(911-626)
north tribes
secede. cities of Shechem & Samaria
capital Jerusalem
 


Sheshonk I,
Shoshenq I
943-922
(D22 #1)

Biblical
Shishak,
Shishaq.
Adad-nirari II
911-891

1st king of Neo-Assyrian Empire

910 - conquers and deports Arameans

subdues Neo-Hittites and Hurrians

defeats Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia

Shamash-
mudammiq

- ? -900
Jeroboam I
931-911
Rehoboam
931-915
Sheshonk's exploits
are carved on the
Bubastite Portal at Karnak.
It mentions the invasion of Judah.

Sheshonk I is mentioned
in the film
Raiders of the Lost Ark
(1981), where he is said to have taken the Ark to Tanis.
According to the Bible,
Shishaq invaded Judah,
mostly the area of Benjamin,
during the fifth year of the reign of
king Rehoboam,
taking with him most of
the treasures of Solomon's temple, given to him by Rehoboam in tribute.

The fifth year would be 927/926?
Osorkon I
922-887 (D22)
    Nadab
911-910
Abijah
915-912
   
Sheshonk II
(or Shoshenq II)
887-885 (D22)
tomb unplundered
Tukulti-Ninurta II
891-884
Nabu-shuma-ukin I
900-888
Baasha
910-887
Asa
912-871
  800-600: Assyrians control lucrative camel caravan trade in "gum, balm, and myrrh" (Joseph)
Takelot I
885-872 (D22)
    Elah
887-886

Zimri 886
  870-750: Tel Dan Stele,
a triumph in Aramaic by Hazael of Aram-Damascus
I killed the king of Israel (melech yisrael) and his ally, the king of the house of David (bytdwd)
validates David, founder of Judah dynasty (p 129)
 
Harsiese A
880-860 (D23)
independent king at Thebes
Ashurnasirpal II
883-859
becomes legendary for war-making, empire-building, and cruelty
  Omrides-
Baal
worship

Omri
886-875
  thousands of idols found in Israel, the Canaanite fertility goddess, Asherah.

Written reference to "Yahweh and His Asherah" -
no monotheism yet.
From Ashurnasirpal, the aim was to conquer Babylon, while having the greatest respect for its antiquity
Osorkon II
872-837 (D22)
    Ahab
875-853
& Jezebel.
Jehoshaphat
871-849
   
Takelot II
840-815 (D23)

Pedubast I (D23)
829-804
Shalmaneser III
859-824
Marduk-zakir-shumi I
855-819
Ahaziah
853-852

Jehoram
852-841
last Omride.

Jehu
841-814
Omride
exterminator

Jehoram
849-842

Ahaziah
842-841

841 - Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III has Jehu paying tribute, earliest depiction of a biblical figure.

840 - Mesha Stele of Moab :

god Kemosh punishes Moab with Israeli occupation

first Yahweh outside Bible
Israel is "House of Omri"
parallels story in Kings
earliest "House of David"

Judah isolated, sparsely populated until 8th c. Jerusalem a small town (p 43)

Battle of Ramoth-Gilead
(Jehoram of Israel vs Arameans)
[ No one gives a date for this ]

[ greedy bedouins
smashed the stele in 1869
First Biblical confirmation
ever found - destroyed ! ]
Sheshonk III
(or Shoshenq III)
837-798 (D22)

Shoshenq VI
804-798 (D23)
Shamshi-Adad V
824-811
Marduk-balassu-
iqbi

819-813


Athaliah
841-835

 
Shoshenq IV
798-785 (D22)

Osorkon III
798-769 (D23)
Adad-nirari III
811-783
Baba-aha-iddina
812
Jehoahaz
814-806
Jehoash
841-796
   
Pami
785-778 (D22)
Shalmaneser IV
783-773
Ninurta-apla-X
800-790
Jehoash
806-791
Amaziah
796-776
   
Shoshenq V
778-740 (D22)

Takelot III
774-759 (D23)
Ashur-Dan III
773-755
Marduk-bel-zeri
790-780
Jeroboam II
791-750

Zechariah
750
  750-710 - Nimrud Lens

at Assyrian palace of Nimrud:
(a) a magnifying glass, (b) a burning-glass to start fires by concentrating sunlight
 
Kashta
760-752 (D25 #1)
  Marduk-apla-usur 780-769
Eriba-Marduk
769-761
[8c prophets

Amos.
Hosea.]
[8c prophets

Isaiah.
Micah.]
  late 8th cent. Gerar becomes fortified Assyrian stronghold in the south (Abraham story)
Rudamen
759-755 (D23)
Ashur-nirari V
755-745
Nabu-shuma-ishkun 761-748 Shallum -
749
Uzziah
776-736
   
Ini - 755-750 (D23)

Piye - 753-721 (D25)
    Menahem
749-739
Jotham
750-735
   
Peftjauawybast
754-720
(last D23)
Tiglath-Pileser III
745-727

"first professional
standing army
"
Nabonassar
748-734
Pekahiah
739-737
  Nabonassar's "systematic maintenance of chronologically precise historical records -
the Babylonian Chronicle & Ptolemaic Canon."
 
Pedubast II
740-730 (D22)
  Nabu-nadin-zeri
734-732
Pekah
737-732
Ahaz
735-715
   
Osorkon IV
730-716
(D22-last)
Biblical Pharaoh So
Shalmaneser V
727-722
722 - takes Samaria
  Hoshea
732–722

[ 722 end N.
Kingdom
.]
    "Judah grows enormously in population,
becomes a power." (p 44)

Shalmaneser deports
Ten Lost Tribes to Assyria

Assyria goes too far

EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLON JUDAH Artifacts Events
Shabaka
721-707 (D25)

Shebitku
707-690 (D25)

Taharqa
690-664 (D25)
Sargon II
722-705


Sennacherib
705-681
murdered
689 - Sennacherib razes Babylon

His sons kill him for desecrating the sacred city
Hezekiah
715-687
7th cent.- Torah & Deuteronomic History -
initial composition

(p 23, 46).
All incidental details are from this period. (p 38)
Sennacherib rebuilds Nineveh

701 - Sennacherib takes Lachish,
but not Jerusalem,
where Hezekiah had refused to fight.
Assyrians agree with Bible on facts,
but not interpretation
Tantamani
664-656 (last D25)
Esarhaddon -
681-669
Esarhaddon rebuilds Babylon Manasseh
697-642
   

Late Period of Egypt - 664-332 (332 years)

EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLON JUDAH Artifacts Events
Late Period -
664-332


Dynasty 26 - 672-525
Dynasty 27 - 525-402
Dynasty 28 - 404-398
Dynasty 29 - 398-380
Dynasty 30 - 380-343
Dynasty 31 - 343-322

Necho I
672-664 (D26)
ruled city of Sais
Assyrian puppet .
Ashurbanipal
of Nineveh
668-627

after
"1500 years of Assyrian
ascendancy,"
its empire
stretched from
Egypt to Persia
Shamash-shum-ukin
668-648
Assyrian king of Babylon

Kandalanu
appointed by
Ashurbanipal
648 - 627
Amon
642-640
Royal Library of Ashurbanipal - 22,000 tablets, including
Epic of Gilgamesh.

His "world's first library."
not to plumb archetypal myths,
but to gain power from "omen texts."

Due to sloppy handling, much of the library is jumbled, so scholars can not reconstruct many of the texts.

 
Psamtik I
664-610 (D26)
takes power,
expels Kushites,
takes Assyrian lands

"a major inter-national power again"
Sin-shar-ishkun
627-612

617- Medes take Nimrud
616- Medes take Ashur

Nineveh falls - 612
old city razed by Babylonia and Media

Ashur-uballit II
612-605? -
last king of Assyria
Nabopolassar
626-605

creates
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(Chaldean)
626
Josiah
640-609
enacts severe reform

Jeremiah
[ prophet ]

Nahum
[ prophet ]
gloats over
fall of Nineveh

Jehoahaz - 609
earliest/oldest text
ever found.

The silver scroll
with the "apotropaic Priestly Blessing"
(Numbers 6:23–27)
dates to Josiah
in the 7th cent.
determined by
pottery found with it
Under Josiah, High Priest Hilkiah discovers
"The Book of the Law" (622) - probably Deuteronomy



Megiddo - 609 -
Josiah dies in battle with Necho II
Necho II
610-595 (D26)

work on Canal of the Pharaohs - 2.

Psamtik II
595-589 (D26)

Apries (Hophra)
589-570 (D26)
Ashur-uballit fights on until 605 -
Babylon ends
the Neo-Assyrian
Empire (300 years)


Assyria over-reached; could not govern, so terrorized, subjects, who nursed revenge [TLC]
Nebuchad
nezzer II

605-562
Jehoiakim 609-598 refuses to pay tribute

Jeconiah -
598-597

Zedekiah -
597-586 -
allies with Hophra against Babylon, and fails

597 - Babylonian Exile begins .
Tower of Babel

Hanging Gardens
(no evidence for them)

Ishtar Gate
605 - Carchemish - Nebuchadnezzer II
beats Necho II & remnants of Assyrian army.


589- Nebuchadnezzer besieges Jerusalem for 18 months

He had a lot of aggravation from the last kings of Judah.

586 - Jerusalem destroyed, including 1st Temple

Ezekiel [ prophet ]

Just as Babylon gets going, here come the Persians

EGYPT PERSIA
BABYLON Judea Artifacts Events
  Cyaxares: 625-585
Cyrus I: 600-580
Cambyses I: 580-559
Amel-Marduk - 562-560
Neriglissar - 560-556
Labashi- marduk - 556



   
    Nabonidus
556-539

[THC] a commoner
enacts a bloody coup,
"A King loyal to the Enemy"

Belshazzar,
his son, Prince of Babylon
    In a fit of Akenatenism,
Nabonidus neglects Marduk, god of Babylon,
leaves the throne to his son, Belshazzar,
to traipse around the country,
building temples to Sin, the Moon god
who was beloved of his Mother
Ahmose II
570-526 (D26)

"last great ruler of Egypt before the Persian conquest."
Cyrus II
the Great
559-530

550 - Achaemenid
Empire
- begins.

builds capital at
Pasargadae -
1st artificial park
[ 539 - end
Neo-Babylonian
Empire - 87 years
]

The Babylonians greet Cyrus as their new king without war

539 -
Babylonian Exile of 40,000 ends

"So said the Lord to His anointed one, to Cyrus" -
 Isaiah 45:1-7.
No idols found in Jewish territory after the Return;
before then, thousands
Cyrus:
80% infantry & 20% cavalry fit for Asian plains.

First not to enslave his captive nations
546 - Cyrus takes Greek colonies in Ionia.
539 - Opis - Cyrus "liberates" Babylonia &
allows the Jews to return to their homeland.
530 - died in battle, fighting the Massagetae,
leaving 3 capitals: Babylon, Susa, Ecbatana

Persian Domination - 2.1 million square miles - larger than Roman Empire

EGYPT PERSIA
Judea HELLAS Artifacts Events
Psamtik III
526-525
[last of Dynasty 26]

end of Egypt
as world power
Cambyses II
530-522
538-520: Jews return to
Persian province of Judah
led by Zerubbabel.
monarchy is over
    525 - Pelusium - Cambyses beats Psamtik III, annexes Egypt
(1) Dynasty 27,

First Egyptian
Satrapy

525-404

Darius I, the Great :
522-486

marries Atossa
(daughter of Cyrus)

died on his way to quell
a revolt in Egypt

Darius, like Cyrus,
paid workers on his projects

The greatest builder
wanted to be known
as a gardener

Artaphernes,
his brother,
satrap of Sardis
521-516:
2nd Temple built

Haggai
[ prophet ]

Zechariah
[ prophet ]

[ 539/530/516 BC
- 70 AD:
Second Temple
Period ]

Miltiades (550-489)
hero of Marathon

 Pheidippides, the Marathon runner

Pythagoras
500s

Heraclitus
- 400s -
the Logos

Parmenides
the One,
timeless,

Anaxagoras
400s

515 - Royal Road,
North Africa to India,
with rest-stops
meant 1677 miles
in 7 days mounted,
not 90 on foot

518 - Persepolis,
raised over a water-sewage system.

work on Canal of the Pharaohs - 3

506 - Fearing Sparta, desiring Persian allies, Athenians send Artaphernes tokens of "earth and water," ignorantly affirming their servitude to Persia in the Zoroastrian way.

Greco-Persian Wars - 499-449.

(1) Ionian Revolt Crushed 499-493
Athens aid, burned Sardis &
Temple of Cybele

(2) First Persian Invasion of Greece - 492-490

492 - pontoon bridge across Bosporus
492 - Thrace; Macedonia surrenders
490 - raze Eretria, enslave citizens
490 - Marathon - Greek victory

  Xerxes I the Great
486-465

[murdered
by Artabanus, commander of the bodyguard]

Artemisia I of Caria
(fl. 480)
lady admiral who prompted Xerxes
to say,
"My men have
become women,
and my women men.
"
Xerxes I is
the Persian king
Ahasuerus in Esther.

Ezra [scribe] 480-440

led exiles home from Babylon and gave a public reading of the (recently completed) Torah
Leonidas I
led Spartans
at Thermopylae

Themistocles,
victor at Salamis

Athens
(493-471)
Persia
(469-459)
ostracised

Zeno of Elea
490-430
Empedocles
490-430

Herodotus
484-425: Histories

483 - Xerxes digs a channel through
isthmus of peninsula
of Mt. Athos,
preparing for invasion

480 - To invade
Greece, two pontoon bridges over
the Hellespont
and when the water disobeyed,
it was whipped

(3) Interbellum - 490-480.

(4) Second Persian Invasion of Greece - 480-479.

[ see schematic map ]

480 - bridge across Hellespont
480 - Thermopylae - Spartans hold pass for 7 days
480 - Athens, found deserted, is burned
480 - Salamis - Persian fleet loses
479 - Plataea - Greek infantry beats Mardonius.
479 - Mycale - Greek army victory

(5) Greek Counterattack - 479-478.

478 - Siege of Sestos in Gallipoli
Herodotus ends,
Thucydides begins, with Sestos.

(6) The Wars of the Delian League - 477–449

c. 469 - Eurymedon in Asia Minor - Delian League beats Xerxes
  Artaxerxes I
465-424

asylum
to Themistocles

finishes Hall of 100 Columns
Nehemiah [ cup-bearer to Artaxerxes and a eunuch ]

Malachi - last prophet
Socrates
470-399

Thucydides
460-395

Pericles
461-429
(Age of Pericles)
Parthenon
built: 447-438
pentekontaetia (the Fifty Years) - 479-431.
peace and prosperity in Greece

Peace of Callias - 449 - ends Persian wars

Peloponnesian War - 431-404.
Athens defeated by Sparta,
Corinth, Thebes -
recounted by Thucydides
  Xerxes II - 424

Sogdianus : 424-423
murders Xerxes II

Darius II : 423-405
murders Sogdianus
Jonah written
(450-350)
about reign of Jeroboam II
    405 - Battle of Aegospotami - Sparta defeats Athens at sea in last battle of Peloponnnesian War.
(2) brief period of freedom - 404-343
Dyns 28, 29, 30

Nectanebo I
379-360
founds Dynasty 30.

Nectanebo II
360-342
[Dyn. 30 #3 - last]

last native ruler of ancient Egypt.


Artaxerxes II Mnemon
404-358
defeats a rival

Artaxerxes III
358-338
murders royal family; murdered by
Bagoas, the Vizier


  Xenophon
430-354

Plato
428-348

Aristotle
384-322

  401 - At Cunaxa in Babylon, Artaxerxes II is defeated by his brother Cyrus the Younger who, with the aid of Greek mercenaries, tries to usurp the throne.
Then Cyrus dies, making the venture pointless

Xenophon's Anabasis - the Greeks journey home.

343 - Artaxerxes III defeated Pharaoh Nectanebo II
and re-conquers Egypt.
"Last great victory of the Persian Empire." [HC]

Zarathustra first appears in the West - a Platonic dialogue - although he dates back perhaps 500 years
(3) Dynasty 31, Second Egyptian Satrapy
343-322
[ last "dynasty" ]
Artaxerxes IV (Arses)
338-336
puppet of Bagoas,
then killed by Bagoas, along with his sons
  Philip II of
Macedon

382-336
assass-
inated
  Philip: what's good for Persia is good for Greece

339-338 - Philip's Campaign in Greece.

Chaeronea - 338 - Philip defeats Athens & Thebes
Sabaces
d. 333
satrap of Darius III, killed at Issus

Mazaces,
his successor,
surrenders to
Alexander
without a fight

332 Alexander crowned Pharaoh, desert-treks to the Oracle of Amon,
whose priests declare him a son of Amon;
founds Alexandria,
Darius III
336-330
cousin of Arses,
raised to throne
by Bagoas,
whom Darius III kills

"The King who lost an empire." [HC]

331: Persepolis
burned to the ground. Alexander devastated.

330 - end of
Achaemenid Empire [220 years]

Chronicles -
written,
"late 4th century"
by Levites
Alexander III
the Great

356-323

dies after night of binge drinking
& ascending paralysis,
maybe typhoid
fever
  Alexander's Persian Wars:

Granicus - 334 - Alexander wins half of Asia Minor; Darius a no-show, expecting nothing of Alexander

Issus - 333 - he takes s. Asia Minor, mounted on Bucephalus, leading the Companion cavalry. Darius showed up, and he led the retreat from the battlefield, leaving his family behind

The Siege of Tyre - 332 - builds causeway for siege tower with catapults and battering ram

Gaza - 332__Alexander : Bathis :: Achilles : Hector

night before battle - total eclipse of the moon
Gaugamela - 1 Oct 331 - Darius is first to flee, and Alexander orientalizes as "King of Kings"

326 - Mutiny at Hyphasis River - 3/4 of army die in the desert trek back to Babylon

Macedonian Domination - 2 million square miles
They have 156 years (322 - 166) before the defeats start coming in.
Hellenism is the assimilation of conquered cities to Greek culture.

Ptolemaic
Egypt

(Hellenistic)
305-30 BC
MACEDON
323-168 BC
"the wealthy"
Kingdom of
Pontus

in Anatolia
Parthia [Iran] Arsacid
247 BC- 224 AD
SELEUCID EMPIRE
312-63 BC
(Hellenistic)
JUDEA Constructions
/ Artifacts
Events
Ptolemy I
Soter

a Diadoch
305-283 /
Ptolemaic
Kingdom
.

took the title of
pharaoh,
created a Greco-Egyptian god, Serapis.
Philip III
(impaired)
323-317
Cassander
317-305

Antigonus I
a Diadoch
306-301 /
Antigonid
Dynasty
.
    Seleucis I
Nicator

a Diadoch
306-281

founds
Seleucid
Empire

over
Near Eastern
territories

  322-275 -
The Wars of the Diadochi

("successors"), Alexander's generals,
begin the Hellenistic period.

[ Diadochi is a
19th cent. term ]
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
283-246

Ptolemy III
Euergetes

(Benefactor)
246-222

Ptolemy IV Philopator
221-204
Philip IV - 297

Antipater II
297-294

Demetrius I
294-288

Antigonus II
Gonatas

277-239
"Mithridates" = "given by Mithra"

Mithridates I
Ctistes

281-266,
founder of
the Kingdom

Ariobarzanes
266-250

Mithridates II
250-210
Amithrsaces I
250-246
Antiochus I
Soter

281-261

Antiochus II
Theos

261-246

Seleucus II
Callinicus

246-225

Seleucid III
Ceranus

225- 223
Ptolemy IV is an antagonist of the apocryphal
3 Maccabees,
describing
events following the Battle of Raphia, in Jerusalem and Alexandria.
Canal of the Pharaohs - 4.
Greek canal locks.

Lighthouse of Alexandria.

Archimedes.

Aristarchus of Samos -
heliocentrism.

Philo, inventor

Septuagint
begun
Manetho [3rd cent.], Egyptian historian, created Dynasties to group kings of a common origin

238 - "Ptolemaic Decree #1"
The Canopus Decree of Ptolemy III shows the wheeling and dealing between the politicians and the priests.

218 - "Ptolemaic Decree #2"
of Ptolemy IV - "the dilettante" (Temple to Homer, wrote a tragedy)
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
204-181



Ptolemy VI - Philometor
("mother lover")
180-145



Ptolemy VIII
Physcon

(sausage,
pot-belly)

c. 169-164,
c. 144-131,
c. 126-116
Philip V
221-179

Perseus
179-168
last king
(Basileus)
of the
Antigonid dynasty
Mithridates III,
220-190
sister,
Laodice III
married A III

Pharnaces I,
c. 190-155

Mithridates IV,
c. 155-150
Mithridates I
165-132

conquered

Herat (167),
Babylonia (144)
Media (141)
Persia (139).

For his
conquests
and
religious
tolerance
,
he's a new Cyrus
the Great
Antiochus III
the Great

222-187

Seleucis IV Philopator.
187-175

Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(Mithridates)
175-164
nicknamed Epimanes (Mad One) for his love of the people

Antiochus V
163-161

Demetrius I
161-150
200 - canon of
prophets closed

Book of Daniel
,
"an apocalypse,
not a prophecy"

Mattathias ben
Johanan

"the Hasmonean"
"Maccabeus" (hammer)
(d 165)

5 sons:
John Gaddi,
Simon Thassi,
Judas / Judah,
Eleazar Avaran,
Jonathan.
205 -
Antikythera Mechanism -
first analog computer


196 -"Ptolemaic Decree #3"
- The Rosetta Stone
produced by Ptolemy V.


oldest/earliest texts -Dead Sea Scrolls,

fragments of all books except Esther; also with Jubilees and Enoch.
(150 BC - 70 AD)
167-160 - Maccabean Revolt

against "Seleucid tyranny"
[ or, a civil war between Hellenized Jews & Orthodox]

While Antiochus IV sees after the overdue taxes in Persia,
his governor, Lysias,

bans religious rites of Jews,
statue of Zeus in the Temple
prompts Jew to revolt
sacks Jerusalem when Jews object

166 - Through guerrilla warfare,
Judah Mac defeats the Seleucid army
,
164 - purifies the Temple ["Hanukkah"].
163 - Seleucids compromise, give up the fight

This great defeat came upon the rejection of Persian religious tolerance
Ptolemy IX Lathyros
("grass pea")
116 - 110,
109 - 107,
88 - 81

Ptolemy X Alexander
110 - 109,
107 - 88.

Berenice III
101-88, 81-80

Ptolemy XII Auletes
(flute-player) 80–58, 55–51
146 -
Rome
annexes
Macedonia
Mithridates V Euergetes
150-120
poisoned

Mithridates
VI
,
the Great,
King of Kings,
120-63

63 -
Pompey makes
Pontus a Roman province
Mithridates II
of Parthia

110–87 BC

105 - failed to get an alliance with Rome
Alexander Balas
150-146

Demetrius II
146-139
129-126

Antiochus VII
138-129

Philip II
65-63 BC
last Seleucid

63 - Rome annexes
Seleucid
Empire
Hasmonean Dynasty
140-37 BC

(1) 140 -110: rules Judea
semi-autonomously
under Seleucids

(2) 110-63:
independent
virtual kingdom

63 - Roman Republic conquers
Judea
.
132 BC -
Septuagint.
"The Greek OT"
OT from Hebrew - quoted in NT.

(1) "This translation is not extant, except as rare fragments."

(~1) Most of it is contained in the Uncial codices.

What gives?

Handel:
Tolomeo
(Ptolemy IX)
Berenice
(Berenice III)

Mithridates VI of Pontus takes on Rome

89: Mithridates defeats Romans, and,
88: In the "Asiatic Vespers,"
Mithridates massacres Roman settlers

88-84: 1 Mithridatic War vs Sulla
who gets distracted and quits
.
83-81: 2 Mithridatic War vs Murena,
another win for Mithridates.

73-63: 3 Mithridatic War
but they lose against Pompey.
Cleopatra VII Philopator

daughter of Ptolemy XII

51-30
 
Mithridates III
of Parthia

58–57 BC

53 - Carrhae - crushing
defeat of Crassus
  (3) 63-40:
client-state of Rome

(4) 40-37: independent
virtual kingdom
  60-53: First Triumvirate -
Caesar, Crassus, Pompey .

Crassus (115-53),
dies fighting for Parthia.

Then civil war between
Caesar and Pompey

44 BC - The Ides of March
night - Mars especially red
while in opposition

43-33: Second Triumvirate -
Augustus, Lepidus, Antony.
30 - Egypt becomes Roman /
Byzantine
Egypt


until 641 AD
    [ Rome never takes
Parthia
.
It will have to wait for the Arabs to take on the
Sasanians
in 651 AD.]
  Herodian Dynasty:
37 BC - 4 BC


Herod executes
Antigonus II,
last Hasmonean, becomes king with Roman support
Augustus builds the Pantheon -

"still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome."
31 BC: Actium -
Augustus beats
Mark Antony & Cleopatra.

Augustus annexes Egypt
,
abolishes the Pharaoh
.

27 BC - Roman Republic ends

Roman Domination - 1.9 million square miles
West: 27 BC - 476 AD / East: 330 - 1453

List of Emperors: 16 executed; 13 assassinated by Praetorian Guard; 5 suicides; 21 murdered. -- 55 out of 82.

"All the emperors who succeeded to the throne by birth, except Titus, were bad;
all were good who succeeded by adoption,
as in the case of the five from Nerva to Marcus.
But as soon as the empire fell once more to the heirs by birth, its ruin recommenced."
-- Machiavelli, while naming the "Five Good Emperors".

ROMAN EMPIRE Artifacts THINKERS + DOERS = EVENTS
Augustus
27 BC - 14 AD
Heron of
Alexandria

10 BC - 70 AD

His fountain.
His Aeolipile (a steam engine).
Lucretius: 99-55 BC

Virgil: 70-19 BC

Sallust: 86-35 BC
(historian)
20 BC - Herod the Great rebuilds Second Temple

Herodian Tetrarchy: 4 BC - 6 AD
4 sons of Herod

Rome abolishes
rule of Herod Archelaus
and forms Provincia Iudea: 6 - 35.
Pax Romana,
27 BC - 180 AD
200 years of relative peace

100 BC - 200 AD : trade between China and Rome is the largest the world had ever seen
Tiberius: 14-37

Caligula: 37-41

Claudius: 41-54

Nero: 54-68 (#5)
mother: Agrippina, Caligula's sister
64: Roman fire;
"Qualis artifex pereo"
Roman "concrete made of lime, volcanic sand, and volcanic rock" is said to be more durable than modern concrete. Philo of Alexandria
(Philo Judaeus),
25 BC - 50 AD
Greek and Jewish thought
harmonized with allegory

Petronius: 27-66
elegantiae arbiter

Rabbi Akiva - 40-137
set canon of the Tanakh: Torah + Prophets + Writings
Pontius Pilate, 26-36,
rules from Caesarea,
HQ of the Occupation.
He went to Jerusalem at Passover, with a guard, fearing riots from strangers in the city, or Jesus starting up a fuss.

Herod Agrippa : 41-44

50 - Council of Jerusalem:
Gentiles exempt from circumcision,
subject to ban on bloody meat.
49: Claudius expels the Jews from Rome

Three Wars Against the Jews:

(1) Great Jewish Revolt (GJR)
66-73

66 - At Beth Horon Romans lose. Vespasian & son Titus sent to end it
Chaos - Year of 4 - 69

68-69: Galba.
69: Otho.
69: Vitellus.
69-79: Vespasian.

79-81: Titus (#10),
son of Vespasian.

81-96: Domitian (#11) Praetorian Guard kills.
70 -80 -
Colosseum.
Josephus (37-100):
Bellum Judaicum (on GJR)
Antiquities of the Jews)
(history 164 BC to 70 AD, inc. mentions of Jesus)
Menahem ben Yehuda,
leader of Sicarii, a Zealot faction,
imposes harsh religious law in Jerusalem

Moderates make a deal with Rome.
Jews assassinate Menahem.

Eleazar ben Ya'ir
takes the Sicarii to Masada and
gets messages from God.
70 AD - Siege of Jerusalem.
Titus, taking over after his father becomes emperor, razes the 2nd Temple, leaves the "western wall."
.
73-74 - Siege of Masada ends with mass suicide, says Josephus; scholars find no evidence of it.
5 good emperors:
[ Nerva to Aurelius ]

96-98: Nerva (#12) elected by Senate

98-117: Trajan (#13)
elected by Senate
  Two view of the Jews:

Tacitus (56-117): "Jews profane the sacred, permit the abhorrent"

Numenius (2nd c): "What is Plato but Moses speaking Attic Greek?"
  (2) The Kitos War - 115-117

fought in the diaspora.
"a widespread slaughter"

Won by general Lusius Quietus, whose nomen named the war, Kitos (corruption of Quietus)
117-138:
Hadrian (#14)

138-161:
Antoninus Pius (#15)

161-169 Lucius Verus
(joint #16)
"Divus Verus"

161-180 (joint #16):
Marcus Aurelius
Stoic philosopher.
126 - Hadrian rebuilds the Pantheon. Marcion - 85-160
wealthy tradesman,
Christian horrified by the OT,
with Yahweh, an evil tyrant.
A Gnostic, he creates first NT .

Valentinus - 100-160 - Gnostic - knowledge saves, not faith

Basilides - 117-138 - Gnostic

Simeon bar Yohai - Kabbalist author of the 13c. Zohar.

170-180 Aurelius, Meditations.
Simon bar Kokhba
rules free state
for 3 years as prince (Nasi).
Rabbi Akiva gave him
his messianic name,
"Son of the Star" in Aramaic

Tineius (Tynius) Rufus,
Roman governor
117 Roman Empire greatest extent

(3) Bar Kokhba's Revolt
132-135
ends in decisive Roman victory

Marcus Aurelius sent an ambassador to China.

"the Fall of Rome [began] with the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 AD." - ma.
Commodus (#17)
180-192, assassinated

193 - Year of the 5 Emperors (#18-20,
with 2 usurpers)

- Septimius Severus 193-211 (#20) fought the Scots; died in York,
his ruling HQ.

198-217 - Caracalla (#21) builder of Baths
Oxyrhynchus Papyri -
50,000 fragments, late 2nd. c.,
disc. 1897

Chester Beatty papyri ,
early 3rd c.,
disc. 1931
"monumental"

Bodmer Papyri, Luke and John from 175-225, disc. 1954
Galen - died c. 216,
physician to Commodus

Irenaeus - 130-202
orthodox vs. heretic defined -
4 gospels.

Tertullian: 160-225
homoousian - "the trinitas is one substantia in three personae."
His "Credo" is a paraphrase.

Origen - 185-254
“Spiritual truth was often preserved in material falsehood.” [john]

The Roman world was governed from wherever the emperor was located.  
Emp
eror Septimius Severus lived in York between 208-11. 
Having restored stability to the empire after a period of civil war, he came to Eboracum (Roman York) to lead campaigns against the Caledonians who had been attacking Roman targets in the north of Britain.

Commodus - Rust Never Sleeps.

son of. Marcus Aurelius,
first to be "born in the purple"

180 - end of the Pax Romana

becomes a megalomaniac,
outdoes Nero debasing currency

took "a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust" -- Dio Cassius

started Decline of the Roman
Empire
- Edward Gibbon
218-222 - Elagabalus - a nickname - (#23) Akhenatenish innovator

235 - Alexander Severus (#24) murdered by his troops

Trajan Decius -
249-251 (#30)

Diocletian (#43)
284-305
Elagabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antonius Augustus)
invented the whoopee
cushion
.
Arius - 250-336
anti-homoousian: the Son subordinate to the Father;
favored by "academic elites"

Judaism was a religio licita (permitted religion)
since Julius Caesar.

Christianity, having no history,
was a superstitio.
Decius & Diocletian fought Christians.

Decian persecution, 250 - all must sacrifice to a Roman god - witnessed by a magistrate - Jews exempt.

But the State needs literate citizens.

Diocletian divided the Empire into
four regions, The Tetrarchy,
"allowing the Empire to survive in the West for over a century and in the East for over a millennium."
"Crisis of the Third Century"

235-284 - "The Empire nearly collapsed from civil war, invasion, plague, and depression."

50 years - 26 Emperors.

251 - Plague of Cyprian (smallpox?)
Constantius I
(Constantius Chlorus)
293-305 (#54)

his consort, Helena, mother of Constantine

Constantine I (CTG)
306-337 (#57)

declared emperor
by his troops in Britain,
wins civil wars against
Maxentius (#58) &
Licinius I (#59)
328: St. Helena finds True Cross.

Codex Vaticanus
( 325-350)
disc. 1431,1845 - this one's a rascal

Codex Sinaiticus
(330-360)
disc. 1844 in a waste basket

These are bases for English revision of the AV in 1881.

290-300
In his Ecclesiastical History,
Eusebius mentions
18 books in the new Bible.

Athanasius (298-373) defends Trinity against Arianism.
"One created being
cannot redeem
another created being!"

325 - Arius banished to Illyria
with his Arian Christianity.

313 - Constantine's Edict of Milan -
decrees tolerance of Christianity in the Empire
Helena gets credit for his conversion.

325 - First Council of Nicaea:
(1) Nicene Christianity is homoousian
(2) Easter out of Jewish calendar.
(3) No talks on NT canon.

Constantine baptized in his last year. Helena had given Christianity its symbol, the Cross, as Hope, not Defeat.

Wars of the Tetrarchy.

312 - At the Milvian Bridge,
CTG, Christian, defeats Maxentius.

324 - Battle of Chrysopolis - CTG defeats Licinius after 10 years of war and executes him.

Constantine settles Franks on the Rhine, loses control of them.

330 - Constantine moves capital to Byzantium (Constantinople).
Constantine II, CTG-son
337-340 (#60)

Constantius II, CTG-son
337-361 (#61)

Constans, CTG-son
337-350 (#62)
  The Babylonian Talmud,
3rd to 5th centuries:
Mishnah (legal opinions)
& Gemara
(legal analysis of Mishnah)
360 - Council of Constantinople:
ousia never appears in Bible.
Brotherly love in action:

337 - 3 brothers, joint emperors

Constans defeats Constantine II in 340; his general Magnentius killed him in 350 for "preferring his barbarian bodyguards."

That leaves Constantius II standing.
Julian II - Apostate
361-363 (#63)
last non-Christian
      Last Hurrah for Reason.

Julian had to fight in Persia

363 - Battle of Samarra - Julian is mortally wounded.
[ 5 more, 3 numbered]

Theodosius I
379-395
#67- last to rule
East & West
367 -
Nag Hammadi Library -
Gnostic texts buried in Upper Egypt, disc. 1946

Syriac Sinaiticus
(late 4th c)
In Syriac; disc. 1892, aka Codex Syriacus)
367 - 39th Easter Letter of Athanasius, based on Eusebius: (1) Christian writ is the present canon of 27 books,
(2) all other books are banned.

Themistius (317-390)
Hellenism and Christianity, two forms of one universal religion.
380 - Theodosius issues Edict of Thessalonica: Nicene Christianity mandatory - the state church.

destroyed Temple of Apollo in Delphi
destroyed Serapeum in Alexandria.
dissolved Vestal Virgins in Rome.
banned the Olympics in Greece.

381- Constantinople Council 1
wraps up Nicenity.


Fall of the Roman Empire - Last Emperors of the West
[ These 15 western emperors are not given numbers ]

Western Empire Eastern Empire Artifacts Barbarians at the Gates Events
395-division East-West

son of Theodosius I

Honorius
in
the Latin West
393-423

"one of the worst emperors, Rome was sacked for the
first time in 800 years."
son of
Theodosius I

Arcadius
in the Greek East
395-408

380s - John Chrysostom,
Adversus Judaeos
382 - 405 -
Jerome's Vulgate

397--400 - Confessions of St Augustine.

Dead Sea Scrolls
(408 BC - 318 AD,
disc. 1946-1956)

Codex Alexandrinus
(400)
376 - "large numbers of Goths
crossed the Danube River."

Alaric I, king of Visigoths (395-410)
401 - he enters Italy

408 - He besieges Rome

410 - Sack of Rome - Visigoths.
They leave after 3 days,
having found no food.
383 - Roman troops start to leave Britain

401 - capital moves to Ravenna

Tragedy: The Goths come as refugees,
then hire on as mercenaries.

Romans allow slave traders to sell dog meat
to the Goths in exchange for Gothic children.

At some point, the Goths revolt.

410 - Rescript of Honorius -
Britons responsible for their defense.
Constantine III - 407/409 - 411
with Constans II - 409

Constantius III - 421

Joannes - 423-425 (usurper)

Valentinian III - 425-455
mother Galla Placidia rules the Empire.

Petronius Maximus - 455 - kills V III; killed by mob
Theodosius II -
402-408 &
408-450

Pulcheria -
450-453

Marcian -
450-457
Augustine dies in 430, during Gaiseric's siege of Hippo Regius. Attila of the Huns - 434-453
"Attila is at the top of the scale
for a psychopathic killer." - THC.

Gaiseric, King of the Vandals - 428–477
Gaiseric takes Carthage - 439
and rules all of north Africa

451 Catalaunian Plains (Châlons) - Attila vs. Aetius - Attila withdraws

455 - Sack of Rome - Vandals
"Along with his rival Count Boniface,
Flavius Aetius has often been called
'the last of the Romans'."

450 - Honoria, V III's sister, sends ring to Attila, who wants half the Empire as dowry.
Marriage never happens.
Avitus - 455-456,
deposed by Ricimer

Appointed by Ricimer:

Majorian - 457-461
Libius Severus - 461-465
Anthemius - 467-472
Olybrius - 472
Leo I
(Thracian, Butcher, Great) - 457-474
Codex
Washingtonianus

(400s)
disc 1906

Codex Ephraemi
Rescriptus
.
(450)
disc. 1840
Theoderic II, Visigoth king
proclaims Avitus emperor.

Ricimer, Roman Magister militum, "Romanized Germanic general,"
rules western empire, 456-472.
Avitus fought (1) "Visigoths, under Euric,
in the Pyrenees"

Glycerius - 473-474     Gundobad appoints Glycerius,
seen as an usurper.
 

Julius Nepos ("nephew")
de facto - 474-475
(rules from Italy)

Romulus Augustus
475-476
(teen ruling from Italy)

476 - deposed by
Flavius Odoacer,
 first King of Italy
(476–493)

Position of Emperor abolished

Leo I appoints
Julius Nepos

Leo II (the Little) -- 474

Zeno - 474-491

Basiliscus -
coup usurper - 475-476
Odoacer had
a "barbarian
moustache"
Flavius Orestes,
Romanized Germanic general
in charge of
Western Roman Empire (475-476)

(1) deposes Julius in Italy and
(2) appoints his son, Romulus Augustus, emperor for parts of the Italian peninsula

Odoacer called himself client to the Emperor in Constantinople,
who was Zeno.

476 - Odoacer's Deposition of
Romulus Augustus

traditionally marks

(1) The "Fall of the Roman Empire"
and
(2) the start of the Middle Ages.

Western Roman Empire falls into pieces,
each controlled by a military strong man.
Theodoric the Great,
an Ostrogoth,
ruler of Italy - 493-526
Anastasius I - Dicorus -
491-518
St. Benedict
(480-543)
The rule allows individuals to obliterate
their will.
493-553 - Ostragoth Kingdom established by Ostragoths.

496: Rheims - pagan Clovis,
king of the Franks,
becomes a Catholic.
His plunders are now holy wars.
He was an early Merovingian

Anastasius had one eye black and
one eye blue (heterochromia) -
hence his nickname, Dicorus (two-pupiled).
 
Justin I - 518-527:
70 years old and illiterate

  [The Merovingians have been called,
"do-nothing kings." Libertarians swoon. ]
 
  Justinian I -
"the Great"
527-565

sought to reunite the Empire

Succeeding emperors reject expense of
recreating the empire.
 Corpus juris civilis,
" foundation of law
for many modern
European nations"

532-537: Hagia Sofia.
Justinian's Vandalic War -
533-534
takes Carthage & north Africa.

Justinian's Gothic War - 535-554
includes
546 - Sack of Rome - Totila's Ostrogoths

War with Sassanid Empire, 540–562
Justinian I, needing money,
is famous for trickery - not paying his soldiers and saying it was their idea. Etc.

The people revolt, he rushes to the dock,
but Theodora, says, "I'm not going."

542 - Bubonic Plague
kills 50% of the western world.
Justinian, infected, survived but weakened.
The autumn chill put an end to it in Constantinople


NOTES

  • Note on the Dating Problems involved in an ancient history.
  • Note on 4 types of written languages here: syllabic, abjad, alphabetic, and hieroglyphic.
  • A note on the Herods.
  • A note on the various Cable Shows on Christian Origins
  • A note on the Alexandrian and Byzantine "Text-Types".
  • Note on the Documentary Hypothesis - more at Wikipedia.



MAP-SCHEMATICS FOR THOSE OF HAZY DAYS OF MEMORY

Mediterranean - Aegean Sea -- Dardanelles strait - Sea of Marmara - Bosporus strait - Black Sea

[ The Dardanelles was "formerly known as Hellespont" - Huh? Since when? ]
The two straits separate Europe (the Gallipoli peninsula) from the mainland of Asia (Anatolia)

The Caucasus - border of Europe and Asia - region between Black and Caspian seas.
It has Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

Bubastis
Heliopolis
Giza
Saqqara/ Dashur // Memphis
-------------
Herakleopolis
Amarna
--------------
Abydos
Valley of the Kings
Thebes (Karnak) [modern Luxor]
Hierakonpolis
Aswan [1st cataract]
Elephantine
----------
Kush
Nubia [ from map ]
The road from the Hellespont
through Macedonia
in the 2nd Persian Invasion [ map ]

               Artemesium

Thermoplylae     Euboea

Delphi                         

               Marathon

  Salamis           Athens

Corinth       

[ FIN ]