|Divinity at its very source is human. -- Jane Harrison, Themis [Stone's Zeus]|
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|Serials - Banned from the Bible|
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Banned from the Bible
Season 1, Episode 1
12/25/2006 - "two-hour world premiere"
1:30:37 without commercials at documentaryaddict.
Cable version (2:01:10) is slightly different.
Narrator 2: Christopher Nissely
w/James Karen & Maggie Soboil as "The Voice of History"
|Gnostics, under Marcion, prompted the first Bible.
What did Enoch see in heaven? (32:50, or 43:30)
What was the boyhood of Jesus like? (44:45 or 56:30)
What about Mary? (52:45)
Gospel of Nicodemus. (1:14:30, or, 1:41:10)
Will there be an apocalypse? (1:22, or, 1:52:30)
(1:30:37, or, 2:01:10)
|POLEMICAL COMMENT FROM THE INTERNET
Much of this uncanonized material shows up in Ethiopia and also in the Koran.
(1) - Testament of Solomon.
1945 - Nag Hammadi texts
(5) - Acts of Peter [showdown with Simon].
In the Bible's Acts,
Lots of Christian versions, says Bart.
(6) - 170 AD - Acts of Paul and Thecla - [celibacy].
(7) - Acts of Peter, aka Martyrdom of Peter - [celibacy].
(8) - Letters of Clement of Alexandria to Theodore.
Their recent find
|Serials - Bible Hunters|
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|There is a BBC2 [ website ] and an American version. The BBC version "presents the information far better than its sensationalist North American counterparts." -- Apocryphicity - 03/09/2014.|
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Larry Hurtado critiqued the show.
|200 years ago, Christianity faced a crisis. People talked of myths, rioted in the streets, burned books after sermons. This is "the story of a handful of intrepid explorers whose discoveries rocked the foundations of the Christian faith."|
Q1: All this time, we have had Vaticanus - since Erasmus, at least.
Mark 16:9–20 - missing; —The Book of Mark ends with verse 16:8,
consistent with the Alexandrian text-type.
The means the "short ending"?
So WTF, WTF, WTF - why was it so shocking in 1844?
Q2: How many educated people of the 19th c. believed in 4004?
1798 - Vivant Denon (1747-1825), artist, arrives in Egypt with Napoleon.
1835 - Das Leben Jesu (Life of Jesus) by David Strauss (1808-1874)
But Sinaiticus did not put old questions to rest, just raised more shocking questions - to some.
|The effect of learning that the texts of the Bible are not reliable.|
"The arrival of Sinaiticus was an absolute bombshell in Victorian society and in the world, not just in theology, but across the whole community." [Goldhill]
1897 - Grenfell & Hunt find the Oxyrhynchus Papyri.
(30:22) By now, everyone wants a part of the action - including American millionaires
It has the Freer Logion.
(43:20) Ancient MSS were sold in Cairo markets.
1946 - The Gospel of Thomas - those sayings of Jesus - sold in Cairo.
Where did it come from?
1970s - the rest of the Nag Hammadi texts appear.
1970s - James Robinson made some headway. He met a priest at Faw Kibli who tipped in off about a local farmer, named Mohammed Ali. He had found a sealed clay pot with leather-covered texts, but he hid them with a monk.
Buried by Gnostics in 367 after ban by Athanasius in his Festal Letter #367.
Fixed doctrine of Bible at the end of the 400s - orthodoxy - a simple message that was not mystical or esoteric or pessimistic.
Search Goes On
(57:10) New texts being recovered from palimpsests with multispectral imaging - different wavelengths of light for different kinds of ink.
"New letters of Paul written in the fifth century."
Decades to go on the Oxyrhynchus papers. 5,000 fragments published out of a million.
2005 - El Gurna in upper Egypt excavated by Poles. They found the Acts of Peter from the 4th c.
|Serials - Biblical Mysteries Explained|
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|According to BME, "some scientist believe that mega-disasters are a natural part the of the earth's heritage. These earlier disasters may have been recorded by man in folk legends, myths and even the Bible."|
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|Narrator: Michael Carroll [ at his management company ]|
|This is the naturalistic version of the miracles.|
00:01:19 - commercial break log
|First Six Plagues Interconnected [ see note on the plagues ]
"Hebrew slaves built treasure cities of Pithom and Ramesses"
Ramses is modern-day Kantir
Pharaoh was Ramesses II, exodus about 1280
Egypt controlled the Sinai, so the Israelis went to the Gulf of Aqaba. heading for Midian in present-day Saudi Arabia, where, years before, Moses had heard Yahweh in the Burning Bush, which was an acacia bush, which, put to the torch, will turn to charcoal, thus burning but "not being consumed."
Red Sea parting. "Some scientists say it could have happened if all the conditions were right." Wind set-down. Strong wind, shallow water, and an underwater ridge to appear as dry land. Is there such a ridge? Not now, but 3,000 years ago, there was! Today's shoreline at Eilat would have been submerged then, taking ridges with it.
Now, the mountain of God. A pillar of cloud leads the way, and a pillar of fire by night. A volcano. None in Sinai, but several in Saudi Arabia.
Humphreys and Williams are "helped by a verbal map that seems to be encoded in the words of the Bible itself, in the Book of Deuteronomy."
11 day journey from Kadesh-Barnea to Sinai.
A typical day's journey is 37 miles. So this is 412 miles.
Hallat al Badr in Saudi Arabia the only volcano big enough in that radius.
What invoked God's wrath? Not clear. Cities are sinful, as opposed to the nomadic life. Homosexuality? Inhospitality to strangers?
3000 - bronze age - start of agriculture. [I have 3,500] - start of civilization
We've found the remains of Zoar.
1894 - Madaba, Jordan, under the floor stones of the church of St. George, lies an intricate mosaic map from the 6th c, showing Jerusalem, Jericho, the Dead Sea, and the city of Zoar - a name only from the Bible.
The town of Safi, its medieval name, is shown by the map to have been Zoar.
In Greek, on the map, "The Sanctuary of Lot" or "Holy Lot"
We find a 7th century church, "The Sanctuary of Holy Lot." An aisle in the church has a cave at the end of it, which seems to match Lot's sanctuary.
Have we found the remains of Sodom?
So Sodom could be the nearby Bab edh-Dhra on the shore of the Dead Sea.
Mass graves found nearby, 20,000 people. A huge graveyard for a small site. The city was abruptly abandoned in the past.
[ Some biblical scholars argue that
Did a Sumerian astronomer observe the asteroid that destroyed Sodom?
(27:21) The "Planisphere" is
Now, a surprise - The Köfels Impact Event in Austria.
(35:45) When Bond and Hempsell use software to trace the impact, assuming that the observer was in Iraq, the asteroid lands in Northern Europe - in the Austrian Alps at a place called Köfels in the valley of Ötztal, Tirol (Oetztaler Valley).
There is no meteor crater there. The asteroid exploded in the air, as one did in Tunguska, Siberia in 1908.
The Biblical destruction came from the aftermath.
An explosion 100x greater than a nuclear weapon, leaving a mushroom cloud of rock and dirt and earth back across the Mediterranean. It re-entered 1500 miles away in the Dead Sea. Anyone there would have ignited instantly. Software tells us when it happened.
The date was the 29th of June, 3123 B.C. at 4:30 am.
Is there other evidence of this catastrophe? Yes.
(45:45) What do the ice cores say?
That would be 3200 BC?
That would be the Sumerian Planisphere. The ash would have surrounded the earth, blocking the sun, and causing a world wide climate collapse. Freeze or desert.
(55:10) The plume would have gone back in an arch over the trajectory, back to Sodom where people first saw it enter the night sky.
Quite a spectacular meteor shower turning to flame as it descends, over 500 degrees F, catching everything on fire. Lot's wife became a charred corpse.(01:01:08)
By 200 AD, there were 50 Gospels.
In 1886, the Gospel of Peter emerges from sands of Egypt
1945 - Gospel of Thomas, found at Nag Hammadi among the 52 texts
1896 - Gospel of Mary Magdalene - Akhmim, Egypt - north of Nag Hammadi
1886 - The Gospel of Peter - clutched in the hands of an 8th c monk.
2000 - The Gospel of Judas - published 2006.
(56:15) By 300, the Gnostics were a threat to the Bishops.
Anyone can access the divine, don't need a church. So the Gnostics did not develop an organization with any popular support. This led to their undoing.
367 - The Gnostic monks hid their favorite books in a cave.
"Sometimes, the winners deserve to win." -- Bock(01:01:10)
|Serials - Bible Secrets Revealed|
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Produced by Prometheus Entertainment for History®
© 2013 A&E Television Networks, LLC.
|"This program explores the mysteries of the Bible from a variety of historical and theological perspectives which have been debated for centuries."
"Now, for the first time, an extraordinary series will challenge everything we think, everything we know, and everything we believe about the Bible."
|Consulting Producer: Robert R. Cargill
Narrator: Jonathan Adams.
McGowan - men with specific agendas created the official canon. Their agena was politics and economics, not spirituality,
Apocrypha - more books than canonical.
Book of Enoch - 300 BC - 100 AD - it was too bizarre. This was the man "who did not die." He now sits with God and makes revelations to humanity.
McGowan - this book was the most forbidden.
God was forgiving but he wiped out mankind for the sins of the Nephilim? HUH?
1945 - Nag Hammadi discovered - 5 jars hidden by Gnostics.
What exactly is this secret knowledge?
1896 - Gospel of Mary [Magdalene], Gnostic of 2nd century, found at Akhmim
[ Exhibit #1 in the Feminist Critique of the Church ]
1st c. AD - The Life of Adam and Eve.
1975 - Kuntillet Ajrud, in the Sinai in Egypt - Israelite center in 8-9 c. BC - 2 large ceramic jars
The Gnostics reject that.
(54:30) Apocalypse is an unveiling or revealing of a heavenly secret.
20 Apocalypses kept out of the NT.
Apocalypse of John almost failed to get into the NT. Some preferred The Apocalypse of Peter where we see the appropriate punishments of the various sins.
The Gospel of Peter.
|Date of Birth
Was the Resurrection a misunderstanding?
Since he died on the Sabbath, his body had to be placed where no work could be done on it. No work on the Sabbath.
The empty tomb could just mean the body was taken for a final reburial.
Story of his resurrection are based on a misunderstanding? They did not know it was taken elsewhere for dressing?
But they were all Jews! They had to know about the Sabbath? They just didn't know someone had taken it away before them?
Then the resurrection stories took hold.
|Does the Bible contain secrets?|
|A Prophet is
Jesus suggests that he is the Son of Man prophesied in scripture.
Then there is the Book of Revelation.
(3:20) The OT was concerned with procreation, the more the merrier.
"One of the great themes of the Bible is that the world around Israel was corrupt and that the Kingdom of Israel was the one refuge for the righteous. This is a continuous drumbeat throughout the Bible" -- Kirsch
Torah rules for sex aimed to protect the birth of legitimate Israelites to keep on.
Leviticus, the priestly law, has more strict rules.
This law is later illustrated in Ruth about Ruth, Naomi, and Boaz. The tale uses euphemism, "uncovering feet" for "uncovering genitalia."
Ruth --> Obed --> Jesse --> David --> Solomon --> *** --> Jesus.
Abraham, with barren wife Sarai, and Hagar --> children
The Law wants as many children as possible. So some sexual situations are approved if they lead to children.
(17:30) The NT has nothing good to say about sex.
Although Jesus was tolerant of the sinner who washed his feet with her hair and her tears, feet being here literal, he had little to say about marriage and nothing about sex.
In the OT, polygamy was the norm, but it came close to accepting homosexuality.
Story of close relationship of David and Jonathan, who wear each other's clothes. David lamented his death. "Thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women."
Kirsch: It's either platonic or sexual. The language is sexual, but it is ambiguous. "David is at best bisexual."
Solomon connected to the Song of Songs, the most sensual book in the OT. It is an erotic poem, celebrating sexual desire between men and women who are not married. They are "hooking up."
It can also be read allegorically.
Biblical authors believed the purest way to live was the Bedouin lifestyle - always on the move and relying on yourself. -- Kirsch
Distrusted cities, where you can indulge sinful tastes.
Sodom and Gomorrah stand for the sinfulness of cities. The people want to rape the strangers in the city in order to humiliate them. But sodomy is not the sin. Rape is the sin. Not practicing hospitality in the near eastern sense.
Lot's daughters, even with the incest, are rewarded for procreating. They were a unique case. The first commandment to be fruitful overrules the "fussy priestly law about incest."
So if incest, adultery, and homosexuality could be tolerated in the OT, why did things change? How did sex out of marriage become sinful?
Christians created Original Sin.
The answer lies in the story of Adam and Eve. They become aware of their nakedness after disobeying God. It's the downfall of all humanity, with the breach of the covenant and sexuality and the fear of death all mixed together.
For the Jews, it was not all bad. Now they had to take care of each other.
Then came Augustine,
Original Sin removed by the sacrament of baptism. [So why need the Atonement?]
|Serials - Decoding the Past.|
Decoding the Past - Unraveling the Shroud
Season X, Episode Y
Produced by Actuality Productions, Inc. for History
© 2005 A&E Television Networks, LLC.
Shroud is 14 feet long, shadowy figure of a man with markings like a crucifixion, and when viewed in the negative, the features are clearer,
Theory: Leonardo made the shroud by taking the first photograph.
Theory that the face on the shroud is Leonardo.
Theory: a gamma ray burst caused by the Resurrection made the image.
Accetta had himself injected with radioactive isotopes and had a gamma ray scanner test the voltage of his body, giving results similar to the shroud.
McCrone said he found particles of paint on the shroud -- red ochre, vermillion, traces of rose matter, and collagen tempura binder. Also no blood. Therefore, the shroud is a forgery, a painting.
BUT - say other scholars - the shroud was often copied in antiquity by people who used just those paints. And the last part of the copy-process was to press the copy onto the original, this being the "secondary relic" part of the copy.
So it's no wonder there is paint on the shroud
The finding of no blood has also been challenged.
1987/1988 - small sample used for RC dating. Burn to recover carbon dioxide. Being linen (3-1 herringbones twill), it has isotopes of Carbon-14 and Carbon-12.
BUT - 2005 - STURP scientist Raymond Rogers says the dating was invalid, since the samples were taken from areas of the shroud that had been repaired.
There's carbon in the RC sample, but not in the Shroud.
John Jackson disagrees with him, but he questions the dating. The fire of 1532 could have added new carbon molecules that skew the dating.
TOO MUCH: Cornuke and Goetz analyze blood flows while standing and while lying down from the shroud.
Nickell: It's just too perfect.
The digital imaging team finds that the shroud figure it stretched from normal human proportions. Based on the head, etc. The arms are too long. Flawed proportions.
But if it were a first century Jewish burial, the head would have been dropped forward, and you would get these proportions.
|Serials - Finding Jesus: Faith, Fact, Forgery|
CNN shows by David Gibson and Michael McKinley
Produced by Nutopia, a British film company
© 2015 Cable News Network Inc.
companion book: Finding Jesus: Faith, Fact, Forgery - home page at CNN -
Mary Magdalene early in the Bible
Mary Magdalene in the 13 Nag Hammadi manuscripts (1945)
Mary Magdalene late in the Bible
An alternative Mary Magdalene
|Serials - Jesus: Rise to Power|
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|National Geographic Channel
Copyright 2012 - Parthenon Entertainment Ltd
|Narrator: Michael Scott|
|"It would be almost tempting to critique this [show] as just another prime time network slam against Christianity timed for a Christian holiday. It aired on Maundy Thursday during Holy Week. *** Mercifully, there are no pompous prognostications from Jesus Seminar scholars like Dominic Crossan or Marcus Borg." -- Mark Tooley.|
But scholars say the Romans were tolerant, never against the law to be Christian, and did not put Christians to death.
112 AD - Pliny letter to Trajan, how deal with Christians, and Trajan writes back to Pliny in Bithynia: unless they break laws, they are not to be hunted down.
He even bans anonymous accusations made against them.
If they do break a law, then if they swear to Roman gods, they are to be released.
Christians will not perform blood sacrifice - a requirement for Romans, and they meet in secret.
WOW!! Trajan rejects Pliny's request to start a fire brigade. For a fire brigade is a gathering, and where there is a gathering, there could be political unrest
So he's not going to allow Christians to met in private.
180 AD - Celsus describes what some say Christians are up to - all kinds of barbarity, devouring flesh of children, sex with women. They are cannibals, why they meet in secret and at night. And those kisses of peace.
The Christians are not engaging in religio, but superstitio.
And they write about the Roman gods in an aggressive way -- they are barbarous and cruel and immoral. They don't deserve to be gods. So the Christians courted trouble, It is a missionary religion.
They divide up families.
Still, no records of state persecution for 150 years.
165 - Plague. Kills millions and millions. Worst epidemic in ancient history,and through charity works, Christians get noted and make converts.
Lyon, France - Roman mobs spearhead one of the bloodiest persecutions of the century. There is a crypt there dedicated to the martyred It could have been for racial or economic reasons.
The bishop was Irenaeus. Gives a positive spin to the massacre. He starts declaring the texts of the new Bible.
203 AD, Carthage - Perpetua whipped in Roman arena, then killed when she puts the reluctant gladiator's sword to her own throat.
IRONY: As Christians wish to be martyred, Romans are reluctant to kill them.
Tertullian tells of Arius Antoninus , a governor in Asia Minor gets impatient with the numbers of Christians wishing to be martyred. "There are plenty of trees to hang yourselves from." Christians now want fervently to be martyred. A cult of self-sacrifice. This is crazy to the Romans.
149 AD - Decius - a time of crisis for Rome. Back to basics - sacrifice, necessary for the state, and has a receipt, a libellus (libelli), issued for each sacrifice done. Litigation! Pagans sacrifice for Christian friends, or officials are bribed to issue the libellus, sacrifice fraud.
|This epic story has one outcome, but two different, often contradictory, accounts. Why?|
Diocletian - 284-305 -
Rome had had troubles, and now the pagan gods are needed even more, but the entrails of the sacrifices cannot be read because of the Christians.
He sets up the Tetrarchy - Roman Empire divided into four,
Now anti-Christian reality is catching up to the propaganda.
The Great Persecution - a defining moment in Rome.
Eusebius of Caesarea, bishop, writes a report on it, more brutal than ever.
Mar Saba, Judean Desert, old monastery, 180 years after G.P., but monasticism gets a start during it,
But did Eusebius exaggerate?
311 - Persecution comes to a close, Church never so strong,
312 - Constantine emperor. His mother, Helena, memorializes stations of the cross over the East. Now Christians are players in politics. But Christians seem hell-bent on making life difficult for Constantine. What is the nature of Jesus himself?
325 - Nicaea - you assholes are fighting over trivia. Constantine sits before his bishops, takes their appeals, and, one by one, burns them before them, [HUH?] Constantine opens the purse strings for his favored bishops to rebuild the Church.
10% of 50 million in the empire are Christian, and Constantine cannot alienate the majority. He does not give up his title, Pontifex Maximus.
Julian - his family killed off by Constantine, himself spared because he was sickly. He hates Christianity.
361 - Julian has a teacher, Maximus, who initiated him into a pagan cult, down into the pit with an ox sacrificed above them. Wanted to marginalize Christians, not destroy them.
How show the power of the Roman gods? By a great victory, defeating Persia, which Constantine could not do. But he dies in battle.
Theodosius and Ambrosia
379 - Theodosius - monks grow more fanatical, pagans are percecuted, and Christians fight Christians, but he mandates the Nicene Creed. How be an Emperor and a Christian?
He sends troops to quell a riot in Thessalonikao - and they kill 7,.000.
Bishop Ambrose of Milan confronts him. Conflict of Church vs State. Theodosius performs penance in presence of Ambrose.
OR: He gets Ambrose to refuse him communion.
Being second among equals will soon be beneficial for the Church.
391 - Theodosius bans pagan worship. Oracles fall silent.
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These are sometimes called, "Mysteries of the Bible."
Produced by National Geographic Television and Film
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|Narrator: J . V. Martin|
Bab edh-dhra was excavated in 1907. It was a vast cemetery, abandoned in 2350 BC. A city on a hill overlooked it.
What destroyed it? Most likely, a volcano. But there is no volcano near the Dead Sea.
was built on a natural fault line, like San Francisco.
It is the oldest inhabited city in the world - 10,000 years.
Suddenly, an earthquake felled the walls and a landslide stopped up the river, just in time for Joshua to cross over.
This was after the spring harvest, just the wrong time for an invasion. They have food and you do not.
The wheat and barley remained. There was no looting.
built over a pool of natural gas, so when an earthquake shook the city, it would only take a spark to ignite the gas, the oil, and the sulfur (brimstone) and start an inferno.
Like the Kuwait fires in the Gulf War, it blocks the sun and the stars.
Could this have happened to Sodom and Gomorrah?
Skeletons found in the open a tower collapsed.
Another earthquake under a exploding gases, tar, and sulfur.
|"When it comes to the miracles of Exodus, explanations abound - from the sublime to the ridiculous."|
(I) The Burning Bush
Humphreys: there was a natural gas leak under it.
(II) The Ten Plagues of Egypt.
Let the naturalistic begin:
(1) Marr on the Red Tide:
(3) Lockwood on Lice:
(4) Lockwood on Flies:
(5) Plagues on the livestock:
(6) Anthrax can cause lesions and boils
A neat experiment:
(7) Storm of Hail and lightning - anything here?
(8) More locusts in a swarm than there were humans on earth at the time of the exodus. Eat the wheat, then go after clothing, leather goods, baskets - anything organic and not moving is food for locusts. The last of the food supply. Starvation loomed.
(9) Darkness - anything here? Just a "sandstorm."
(10) Marr on the death of the first-born
(III) The Parting of the Red Sea
(28:45) Humphreys - setdown:
McCoy - tsunami:
So what is the date of Santorini?
(40:30) O'Meara on an underwater volcano.
(IV) There is no agreement on the route the Israelites took out of Egypt.
(V) The Red Sea is a mistranslation for the Sea of Reeds.
(VI) Believers still try to overcome the silence of Archaeology.
(52:30) EXCEPT - Cornuke claims artifacts of the Exodus.
(VII) Non-believers says the silence is truthful.
Cooney : that bronze is not organic, not dateable
Not a single artifact has been found that could be linked to the Biblical Exodus.
The silence of Egypt is telling.
Embarrassment? Egyptian bureaucrats did keep records of bad things happening, "civil war, unrest, foreign incursion, people coming in and taking Egypt over."
1600 BC Israelites perhaps in Egypt; 1207 - first mention of them. Perhaps waves of migrations of small numbers of people over hundreds of years, retelling their story until it became an epic.
1947 - Bedouin boy found the scrolls in Qumran, which his friend, Mohamed el-Dhib, sold for four dollars to a shoemaker in Bethlehem. This was just before Israel came into being.
The place at Qumran
1952 - the Copper scroll discovered.
Robert Feather on the Copper Scroll:
Feather's idea of a Qumran youth for Jesus has problems:
68 AD - Qumran destroyed at time of First Jewish Revolt, which ended at Masada.
If the Essenes died at Masada, that would explain why the Scrolls were left there.
Cline: "no historical precedent for the 10 Commandments."
Specific instructions to build the Ark to carry the Commandments, and only the Levites could carry it. It was covered in blue cloth, since no one could look upon it.
Moses's nephews making sacrifice to the Ark were incinerated.
The Ark fell the walls of Jericho.
300 years later, the Ark abandoned the Israelites. When the priests failed in their sacrifices to the Ark, the Ark allowed the Philistines to defeat them. The Philistines too the Ark, then sent it back 7 months later.
Solomon built a Temple to house the Ark. 20 stories tall. Only the High Priest could approach it in the Holy of Holies. It was placed there in 955 BC
Nothing is said of it after 620 BC - after the reign of Josiah.
Gershon Salomon: "Time is short." Destroy the Dome of the Rock. The Ark is waiting for us under the Temple Mount.
Is Revelation a prophecy of things to come, or it it history, come and gone?
Meenan - Two Johns involved here
BELIEVERSBut Jesus gives signs of the end time in Matthew. Pretty vivid.
(1) The Rapture
(2) Seven Years of Tribulation.
(3) The Beast
(4) The number of the Beast
(5) The mark of the Beast
(6) The Third Temple Built
(7) Armageddon - the Final Battle
IF ALL THE BELIEVERS ARE GONE, WHO IS FIGHTING WHOM?
Then the final face-off between Christ and the Beast. The Beast loses.
(8) An eternity of peace.
(9) And it's all coming soon.
(1) the Rapture will occur between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844
Many early Fathers objected to the Book of Revelation. Perhaps its author saw what the clerics missed. Every great book needs a big finish.
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|Narrator: .Matt K. Baker|
(15:35) After the Red Sea, there is another wandering for 40 years.
(27:15) More clues from the Bible pay off.
Phil ips returns to the books in Birmingham.
There it is - in the Egyptian Gallery.
(51:40) Could the Egyptian steward be Moses?
Some are unconvinced.
This is the story of Bryant Wood,
STORY: In 1406 BC, Joshua invades Canaan in the spring, just after the harvest. The waters of the Jordan part for him, one of the great miracles of the Bible. He sends spies into Jericho, who find Rahab, the prostitute with a heart of gold. She hangs a red sash from her window so that her life will be spared. The Israelites burn down the city and slaughter every being alive.
(13:00) TODAY: It is Tell es-sultan, the city of palm trees.
Garstang excavated in the 1930s, and pronounced the Bible accurate - Jericho fell in the 1400s, in the LBA from the pottery. He described fallen walls.
But there are many Jerichos on top of one another.
In the 1950s, Kathleen Kenyon excavated and said Garstang was wrong. She dated the pottery to 1550, in the Middle Bronze Age, not the Late Bronze Age. This could not be the city of Joshua.
There is no city for Joshua to capture. The story of Jericho did not happen. - Cline
Bryant Woods did a PhD thesis, checking the pottery dates again.
But it is hard to find the pottery. Not published, and given to people all over the place who financed Garstang.
So Woods starts to travel to find it all, including at the Louvre. He says, Kenyon had been selective in her examination of pottery. She did not examine the local pottery she had; she based her conclusion on "the absence of imported pottery."
He agrees with Garstang - 1400 BC, the time of Joshua. Here's pottery that's clearly 15th century, Wood says.
(26:00) (Richard Gabriel) Joshua is one of the greatest generals of antiquity. His spies went to a whore-house.
"The crossing of the Jordan is one of the great miracles of the Bible."
But now they must cross the River Jordan. Springtime. Snow melting. River rushing.
Then, just at the right time, just as with the Red Sea, God comes across, and parts the river.
So Woods asks if there a scientific reason for the parting of the river. Another tectonic plate, a major fault line, gives rise to earthquakes.
Gabriel: [This is not a new problem for a general.] But, commonly, generals put something upstream to break the force of the current. Porus, when he fought Alexander, used elephants to do it. Americans, in the west, put their wagons and livestock upstream.
Rahab hid Joshua's spies under the flax on her roof. Wood says this is an unusual detail to have in a story about a battle 3,500 years ago. The flax was up there for drying, after the harvest. Garstang found storage rooms with large jars of grain. Wood says this affirms attack after the spring harvest. Obvious just after the harvest, because the jars were full.
Duration of the siege? Jericho could have held out for a long time. It had a spring for water. 7 days, another precise detail. Also confirmed by the full jars of grain. The full jars meant that the siege was short.
(39:15) Collapse of the walls? Joshua marches around for six days, then seven times on the seventh day, then the shouts and trumpets cause massive walls to fall.
"presented as complete and total annihilation" (Strine)
"No one has ever denied that the walls of Jericho collapsed in ancient times."
(Eric Cline) "The walls of Jericho seemed to have tumbled down with some frequency. This was not the only time."
Wood wants another natural explanation.
Jericho is very close to the River Jordan fault line, closer than SF to the San Andreas fault. Both Garstang and Kenyon found evidence of earthquake activity.
(Gabriel) Military people think this is crazy. What general would say, "We will delay the attack on Jericho until the next earthquake." A simpler explanation is possible. The destruction of the walls of Jericho is easily explainable on military terms. The story says, the spies had Rahab tie a red cord outside her window, so she will be spared in the slaughter. But, Gabriel says, Rahab put the cord outside her window outside of the walls. It could not be seen from inside the walls where it could spare her life. Instead, the red cord was to haul up into Rahab's house special commandos over seven days until they were a large enough force to launch a surprise attack, 30 to 40 Israelite soldiers, waiting for the signal to strike. The army forms again, horns blow, the spies rush to the gate and kill the guards, overtaken by a rapid combined assault. So the falling of the walls is a figure of speech.
(Wood) Another detail - Rahab's house was spared in the attack. (Not just her, but her house.) Was there a wall that did not collapse? Could that have been Rahab's wall? A mud brick wall did not collapse. Aha, that was Rahab's wall.
(52:30) One more detail. The Israelites don't plunder the grain. They leave it there. No plunder, just burning, Was the wall collapse followed by a massive fire? Kenyon says there was a fire which burned the 10 foot thick walls through and through. Wood says collapse first, then fire. Same as Kenyon.
Why the precise detail, sparing the grain. Prove the season and no plunder. They leave the grain behind. This is unusual in a war situation. We don't find it elsewhere. Shows the uniqueness of the attack and that the description is eyewitness.
Wood "has overturned 40 years of skepticism over the fall of Jericho. What a difference a shard of pottery and a grain of wheat can make."
BUT radiocarbon C14 - test results date grain to 1550 BC, plus or minus 110 years. 100 years before Joshua's time. Kenyon's dates.
Wood rejects carbon-14. It's "unreliable." A number of results have found to be unreliable.
Wood: "No archaeological find contradicts what the Bible says, The only problem is how people interpret the archaeological find."
Today, less that 50% of tell es-sultan has been excavated.
Dale Manor (YouTube) raises the question of "Rahab living in/on the wall." Some walls as wide as a single-wide motor home today, 15 - 18 feet. Houses in ancient world not typically large.
In the LBA, most fortifications, if there were any, were re-used MBA fortifications.
Exodus early date - 1 Kings 6:11 - 1400s [ 970 - 4 = 966 + 480 = 1446)
Garstang - 1930-1936 - misdated a wall by a millennium
Kenyon - 1952-1958 - no 1400s, some 1300s, no 1200s
Only a very limited amount has been excavated. We can't do much with our information.
We have found no evidence of occupation of Jericho when the Israelis arrived (on either date), but we can't say it wasn't. That's the problem of Jericho.
The skeptic says
The believer says
(14:40) 1898 - a photographic negative shows a positive image of a man.
1978-1981 - STURP in Colorado- it's real.
(28:25) Radio-Carbon dating - it's fake.
1998 - Fanti and Pam Moon suspects an error in the dating.
Then Fanti does historical research
(42:15) 2002 - Fanti does three tests - it's real.
Pam Moon is happy.
(54:35) But how did the image get created?
This show originates the Lost Tribes in the Babylonian Conquest. [HUH?]
A tribe of Negroes in South Africa, the Lemba,
In the field, Tudor
(20:45) In Israel, in 2000, Tudor Parfitt
On his own, Tudor tries to find the Ark. It turns out that
(47:00) Locals object to his presence, tell him to vanish, set up an armed roadblock against him, which he luckily makes his way through, all the shots missing him.
(52:30) Then he spends 7 more years without any luck. At a dead end, he hears from a stranger in a bar about the Zimbabwe museum..
:He finds one of the battle arks
So, all this time, the Lemba have been ambiguous about their "Ark."
There's no end to this story.
Traditional route of the Exodus:
Says Cline, the skeptic,
Humphreys says, science can find Mount Sinai,
(16:20) The Israelites may have never entered the Sinai Peninsula.
So where was the parting of the Red Sea?
(29:15) So the parting of the Sea of Reeds was a wind event.
[ TIME OUT! THIS WIND SETDOWN OCCURRED IN FRESH WATERS SO SHALLOW THAT REEDS GREW THERE? WOULDN'T THE REEDS HINDER THE PHAROAH? WHY WOULD HE GO THERE? HE HAD CHARIOTS; THE ISRAELIS WERE ON FOOT. ]
The Israelis trekked through the Arabian Desert, not the Sinai.
Alois Musil has already explored the Arabian Desert.
(39:45) So where is "Mt. Sinai" in the Arabian Desert?
This suggests a Scientific explanation of the burning bush
Dozens and dozens of active volcanos in the Arabian desert.
(51:45) Mount Sinai was the Arabian volcano, Mount Beder.
(58:30) But now comes Francesca to poop the party.
So can Colin can prove that Beder erupted at the time of the Exodus?
But Saudi Arabia does not allow Bible scholars to explore the land.
"The description of Mt. Sinai in the Bible as a volcano is the earliest description of a volcano in any ancient literature." -- Humphreys.
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory is at The Earth Institute at Columbia University,
|40 Year quest of Bill Ryan and Walter Pittman|
Glomar Explorer -
Core samples from the Mediterranean - down there is a thick layer of salt - meaning that at one time, millions of years ago, the Mediterranean Sea lost all its water.
5 MYA - the Mediterranean Sea was a dry desert basin, separated from the world's oceans by a land barrier at Gibraltar.
When the water returned, it happened fast. The barrier between the Mediterranean and the open oceans burst. In a geological instant.
The Bible gives no indication of where Noah was living during the flood,
Mt. Ararat is in Turkey.
The Black Sea has only one connection to the world ocean through the Bosporus.
But in 1971, the Cold War makes the Back Sea off-limits
1993 - 20 year later, they get an invitation from an oceanographer in Bulgaria, coming in an envelope with colorful stamps. Then another letter! A team of Russian oceanographers invite them to come over for a little investigation.
THEY FIND THE EVIDENCE.
See remains of an ancient shore submerged under 100 meters of water. The water level was once much lower. When the Black Sea re-flooded, it was another geological instant.
A freshwater lake turned into a saltwater sea.
How get the samples back to the US? The KGB is interested. They leave the sample for Russian colleagues to send later. On getting home, they turn on their GPS, which recalls the coordinates of the place it was last tuned on, now KGB HQ in Moscow.
Then the samples come, safe and sound.
So modern humans could have witnessed the flood and preserved it in their legends.
So now we go to the Bosporus. Did water ever flow through there fast enough to create the flood? It's 800 meters wide and 30 meters deep
How did the people react?
Now-- were there people living on the shores of the Black Sea lake when it flooded? Bob Ballard joins the hunt. Find blocks of wood at Site 82. But RC dating of the sample of two hundred years, old fishing gear.
Bulgaria is on the shore of the Black Sea. Varna is a coastal region in Bulgaria.
Now - is this flood same as described in Bible?
Ryan: The Black Sea could be an oasis in Eden.
One of the rivers was Pishon, which came from the land of gold
Ryan: "They'll even put gold into the story." Like the land of Varnese?
Everything coming into Europe was coming from the circum-Black Sea area.
The animals and grains on the ark are priceless. They have been developed over millennia for our use. The ark story is a manual for displacement.
The Biblical story of Jacob's stone:
"The stone of Jacob is one of the great stories of the Old Testament." This is "a seminal moment in Israelite history."
(14:30) The Bible needs a Shaggy Dog Story
|You are here: BBC > Science & Nature > TV & Radio Follow-up > Programmes > Horizon > King Solomon's Tablet of Stone.|
"There is no proof that Solomon's Temple ever existed. Not a single archaeological ruin has ever been found .... until now." The Jehoash Tablet "could be the only surviving evidence of the Temple of Solomon." Unless it's a forgery.
957 - Solomon dedicates the Temple. Super-fabulous. Houses the Ark of the Covenant in the Holy of Holies.
587 - Babylonia destroys the Temple. [They don't strip the gold sheets for reuse; they just burn the temple to the ground?]
2001 - Itzhak Zuriel meets the director of the Israel Museum to sell him the Tablet, a record of repairs made to the Temple, written in fifteen lines of ancient Hebrew and carved in sandstone, supposedly during the reign of Jehoash (c. 836 – 797 BC).
For the Israelis, "this is possibly the most important archaeological artifact yet found."
No one knows where the Tablet was found. Contradictory rumors.
2003-01 - news of the Tablet becomes public. It has been authenticated by the Geological Survey of Israel, and the starting price is $4 million.
The news comes to the IAA - the Israel Antiquities Authority, which has a Robbery Prevention Unit run by "scholar cops."
Amir Ganor [ page at the IAA ] is the chief detective. Find the stone. Major police job. They find the scientist at the GSI who tested the tablet. The patina can be faked.
So the tablet is not a modern forgery. Zuriel disappears.
Amir Ganor hears that Zuriel is a former spy for Shin Bet. They find Zuriel, who says he takes instructions from Oded Golan.
"So two important but suspicious items were in the hands of one man."
Professor Yuval Goren denounces the tablet as fake from the GSI report.
Steps for a forgery (Goren)
Ramat Gan - where a new warehouse of Golan is found. Find tools and half-finished items, photographs of letters, casts, computer programs, sketches, diamond cutters, industrial design tools, bags of soil labelled from different digs - a forgery workshop.
Golan says that all the tools were simply for restoration.
"Golan is a formidable adversary" to Ganor. So Ganor raids the home of his elderly parents, and then Golan breaks. He delivers the tablet.
So Ganor wants to show the tablet to the press. But someone picked it up, dropped it, and the tablet cracked in half along a pre-existing hairline crack. So they hold the press conference with the broken stone.
Now more tests conclude it is a forgery.
2004-12 - IAA charges against Golan and four dealers for fraud. Tip of the iceberg. Countless forgeries already in museums around the world.
Cohen says the forgery is brilliant. Scholars at the trial are split. Shapes of letters not conclusive. One line has three different versions of the same letter.
Goren has to change his testimony in mid-trial. He said there was no patina in the letters. The defense points out a place on the projection-photo where there is, and Goren had to admit it.
Judge Aaron Farkash is perplexed.
2012-03 - after 8 years and 12,000 pages of trial transcript, Farkash acquits Golan.
The IAA refuses to return the tablet to Golan -- on the grounds that table could be real -- until 2014.
The IAA used a private lawyer to send a letter to Golan's lawyer, saying that they would not refuse if Golan comes to collect the tablet.
He lost millions of dollars.
Rohl "revises the chronologies of ancient Egyptian dynasties by hundreds of years."
(15:33) Most chronologies put the early Bible events at 4,000 - 2,000 BC.
In the Table of Nations, there is a king, Nimrod, the son of Cush and " a mighty hunter before the Lord."
He was the founder of Babylon, and the first great king. Not connected with the Tower.
Josephus (94 AD) said that Nimrod built the Tower of Babel as a refuge in case there was another flood.
(27:22) The Sumerian King List is a clay prism of cuneiform kept at the Ashmolean Museum. It is dated to 1800 BC, There is a king Enmerkar, who comes "one generation after the flood in the Sumerian tradition." He "founded Uruk."
In Dave's chronology, he ruled 2700 BC, just after the 1st Dynasty of Egypt.
The suffix "kar" means "hunter."
N M R - Enmer, king and hunter
Was there an ancient mix-up?
The Bible is full of puns.
In Hebrew, the D turns the word into a verb, "to rebel." Nimrod as a verbal form means "we shall rebel." We should expect rebellion in the story of Nimrod
So, accepting that Nimrod built the Tower from Josephus, we have NMR, the king who rebelled against God. Now, the same as Sumerian NMR. "I think they are the same people."
Now where is the Tower?
(39:00) Babylon first appears 2,000 BC and peaks 1,500 to 500 BC. At Babylon, there are remains of a ziggurat. Maybe the Jews of the 500s made it into the Tower?
But Rohl says Babylon is too late to have the Tower.
Babilu - Akkadian
Nun-ki means "mighty place" or "mighty city."
There were two Nun-kis in Mesopotamia, one in the north, traditionally called Babylon, and one to the south, also known as Eridu,
Why not the"Tower of Eridu"? The Biblical scholars had another mix-up. The Hebrews only knew the northern Nun-ki.
Archaeologists have found that Eridu had a "ziggurat or tower temple" during the reign of Enmerkar. But it was not abandoned.
Rohl looked at the excavation reports. Behind Temple 1 is a large platform. It looks like the base of a much larger temple, a platform temple. This is a ziggurat that was never finished. Could that be the Tower of Babel?
But what of the confusion of languages and the scattering of people?
(52:15) Thee had to be a lot of languages spoken in Eridu because of the mass immigration. What if the confusion of languages was caused by immigration?
If the people were more primitive, they might fight.
A thousand miles to the west, in the eastern desert of Egypt are thousands of drawings, "rock art." They show hundreds and hundreds of high-prowed ships, miles from the water.
Could this be immigration to Egypt? The land was so fertile that the Sumerians wanted to own the place. The uniqueness of Egypt depends upon a meeting of two cultures, African and Sumeria. There were no Egyptians in Mesopotamia.
This migration was at the time of the First Dynasty in Egypt -- by Rohl's chronology.
Brick architecture first shows up in Egypt and lapis lazuli from Afghanistan.
Other scholars lament the "vast jumps in logic" here. What could those be? I wonder::
Saying that "migration is what people do" is not quite sufficient here.
Rohl: "The best way to deal with criticism is to simply walk away."
When you begin the search for the Grail, things start happening.
Valencia, Spain: A chalice, cup studded with jewels, used by Popes. One of hundreds In the Middle Ages, your church having the Grail was good for business.
The real one probably did not have jewels. Probably a simple wooden cup. Would anyone have thought is special at the time.
Worse: The story of the Last Supper never once mentions the Holy Grail, and never says the cup of the mass was special. That story of Joseph of Arimathea collecting the blood never mentions the Grail. The Legend of the Grail is not in the Bible.
(17:10). So where did this story come from?
1190 - Perceval, the Story of the Grail by Chretien de Troyes, first to write about the Grail. Perceval meets the Fisher King at a castle and witness a procession, with a woman holding "un graal," a large dish with powers.
1210 - Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach, a knight. It has no cup, no Arimathea. The object is a stone falling from heaven, and it gets more powerful with each year that a dove comes down and lays a wafer on it.
Five stories in the Vulgate Cycle (written in French, the vulgar tongue, not Latin) about knighthood.
Joseph Campbell - why would a knight have a search high and low for a grail, when, if wanted a miracle, he just had to cross the road, go to a church, and take communion, and then he partakes directly of the blood of Christ.
So the Grail stories are not about a relic. Wolfram was a member of the Templars, who fight for good, not power. The Grail Knights are based on the Templars.
1099 - Christians in Jerusalem. Knights Templar protect Christians in the Holy Land. Their HQ is the Temple Mount. They start digging. Never say if they found anything. When they get back to Europe, they are rich. They become powerful. Get blessed by the Pope. Made the priests angry.
14th century, France, Philip IV. Templars get abusive, and people come to hate them. Philip is bankrupt, so he wants to steal the fortune of the Templars, and he accuses them of blasphemy, etc. He wipes out the Templars all over France on Friday morning, the 13th of October, 1307.
No Grail was found. So it must intangible, maybe an idea.
Could the heresy for which the Templars were tried be the Grail?
(42:00) Massive documentation of the trial of the Templars. No clues as to the Grail.
[HUH? WE AREN'T TOLD WHAT THEIR HERESY WAS?]
The Templars revered the Virgin Mary. That's not a heresy.
If Templars influenced Chartres, are the 3 black madonnas there a clue? There are hundreds across Europe. They are a symbol of the 12th c. Was the Grail the Feminine Principle? Why would that upset the Church?
(53:45) Black had positive connotations back then. In Egyptian tradition, black is the color of wisdom. The Black Virgin is alternative Christianity.
The Templars thought there was more wisdom in the Virgin Mary than in Jesus Christ. That was heresy. They hid their wisdom in poems.
So what was this wisdom?
Simple things, compassion and love. That's the Grail.
THIS IS WHAT YOU CALL AN ANTI-CLIMAX.
Like Biblical Mysteries Explained,
"If Egyptology can't find the evidence, maybe Epidemiology can."
"The exodus in Egypt, according to Jewish tradition, takes place in the 14th century BC." - Zaurm
"There is no proof. There is no archaeological evidence for the Israelites at any stage in their journey. They have not been detected." - Cline
"The Egyptian evidence for the presence of the Israelites in Egypt is precisely zero." -- Dodson
[ see note on the plagues ]
Of number 4 we hear, "For Marr, this is a milestone in his investigation of the ten plagues of Egypt."
But Marr is stuck on number 7.
In Canada, at the same time, Siro Trevisanato, learns of a an eruption of the volcano, Cerro Hudson, which sent a plume over the Andes, landing in Patagonia red and acidic. So could a volcano have caused the first plague?
There are no volcanos in Egypt.
But Mount Thera, now in the island of Santorini, was a large volcano in the Mediterranean and very active in the Bronze Age. This toxic plume could affect pastures.
(41:00) " Siro Trevisanato has successfully proved that the first seven plagues could be cause by a volcanic eruption."
But the darkness is a problem. It should have been plague number one. But in a biphasic eruption, the eruption can start again after an initial blast.
Meanwhile, John Marr is not convinced of the volcano. Mt. Thera is dated to 1600 BC, while the Exodus is in the 14th century.
It can hail in Egypt even without a plume.
It forms on the surface of the grain, that given to the eldest son or daughter.
(1) Sodom is one of the five cities of the plain:
(2) Five sites south of the Dead Sea are candidates:
(3) Collins thinks it must be in the north, where Abraham could see it:
(4) Wherever it was, what was the natural catastrophe that destroyed it?
Tunguska in 1908 (53:30)
"That's exactly what Abraham saw."
Inside Baseball needs more innings:
| Serials - The Bible's Greatest Secrets.
|[ sub-menu ] - page at AHC - [ top-menu ]|
Executive in Charge of Production - W. Clark Bunting
© DCL MMIII
A BBC Manchester/Discovery Co-Production
© MMXIV Discovery Communications, LLC.
|Host/Narrator: Avery Brooks OR Chris Cook.(2.5)|
Critique: Unlike most History Channel "Bible" programing, such as
that is just a cover to attack Bible accounts either by denying the Bible account or attacking the veracity of the Bible, "The Bible's Greatest Secrets" attempts to truly examine scriptural accounts, stories, claims in a relatively fair and balanced way. This is in no way a pro-Christian show, the conclusions reached are often incomplete or just wrong, yet I think the show is making an honest attempt to understand what is in the Bible.
Three suspects for death of Jesus
So who is responsible? Each and All in various ways.
Mary was at the execution site. All the disciples had fled for their lives.
|How did these twelve bitchy men found a major world religion?|
New century dawns with Palestine torn apart.
Leave your possessions behind
Disciples became faith healers to survive.
Competitiveness and rivalry amongst the disciples.
Entry into Jerusalem
Disciples vanish at the crucifixion.
Archaeology has evidence of Peter in Rome.
Recorded by scribes in 600 BC.
Set in Canaan, "about 1600 to 1700 BC")
(Lloyd Lewellyn-Jones) Sibling rivalry was strong at this time because the wealthy fathers had many wives. Boys constantly on the lookout for favoritism, like a multi-colored coat.
(Barry Gittlen) Khnumhotep III was a high official of Amenemhet I.
His tomb walls have colorful pictures. One shows travellers from Canaan visiting Egypt. They have beards and sharp noses. The Egyptians are clean shaven. They have multicolored coats. The word for coat is only used once elsewhere, and it means a long-sleeved coat, impractical for any work and so a sign of high status Vivid colors were rare and hard to make. Black took a long time, white required bleaching, red and purple were the most expensive. Red from the crocus plant. Imperial purple from shellfish, thousands of them. This coat meant that Joseph was their father's favorite son.
TELLING DETAIL: Joseph is sold for 20 shekels, the price of a slave at that time. We can chart the increase in the slave price to 40 and 60 shekels over the centuries, but the writer of the story got the ancient detail right
DETAIL: Sold to Potiphar, general for the Pharaoh Noblemen in Egypt had Semitic household servants. Brooklyn papyrus confirms that these Semites are given easier to pronounce Egyptian names.
Then Potiphar's wife, spurned, accuses Joseph of attempted rape.
In jail, told of a dream. servant will be freed in three days, Becomes the Pharaoh's dream interpreter in the 17th century.
Head rests instead of pillows, hold head above bugs. Images of creatures to repel nightmares.
No evidence of dream interpretation until 13 c, not sure it is used.
In Mesopotamia, gudea, 2400 B.C., had dream interpreted.
SO WHAT'S THE UPSHOT OF THAT? CONCLUSION DROPPED.
The generation that built the pyramids "was wiped out in decades." Famine, says Fekri Hassan, shown in tombs of the time. This impressed all pharaohs later on, A constant threat to the ancient world.. Everyone came to eating their children, and this brought down the government and all institutions. Looting. So the dynasty had to end. This was in the time of Ankhtifi.
So famine became an obsession.
DETAIL: But can a man convicted of attempted rape become a vizier? Clues in tombs at Amarna. Signet ring and gold chain to Joseph for authority. Ay (1450 BC) promoted by a pharaoh gas pictures of his investiture, looked in on by Akhenaten who gives Ay symbols of office, a gold chain and insignia, signet ring. So the story writer knew about Egyptian government,.
Aper-el, another vizier, tomb found. He had a Semitic name. So it can happen!
Siptah, 1200 BC, became king only because of his foreign minister, bay, the Assyrian kingmaker.
These are stories from later times, however.
Kilimanjaro gives ice cores that reveal the ancient climate of Egypt. Examine cores for dust, indicating earthquakes causing drought and famine. Dust event of 4,200 years ago. Not Joseph's time, but the earlier cannibalism event. Another dust clumps 3,600 years ago, Could be famine predicted by Joseph.
Famine is caused by water not reaching agricultural areas, land around lake Qarun in the west.
2200 BC Lake Qarun drought.
Someone dredged a canal to keep the area fertile = bahr yusef = waterway of Joseph
Joseph brings family to Pi-Ramesses, but the site is 300 years later.
So we look for Avaris. Excavate it, 300 years before Pi-Ramesses, at the time of Joseph. Only area was Canaanite, which had Semitic presence in the houses. bodies buried sideways, bible said Semites settled in nile delta. Palace found, a tomb, and a statue of a Semite smashed up. "Could this be Joseph?" No other palace for a private individual. Had to be someone like Joseph. And he had a multicolored cloak.
00:01:15 - commercial break log
STORY: In 1400 BC, Joshua and company arrived in Palestine, used military intelligence (spies) to take twelve cities by magic.
No evidence of Joshua ever found.
There's a source of water for Jericho, still working today
There is a tell at Jericho, remains of city upon city over millennia.
Garstang - two strong parallel mud-brick walls at Jericho - dated 1,400 - when the Bible says the Battle of Jericho occurred. Those walls built on stone foundations. Stone retaining walls, mud-brick ramparts mud-brick walls.
Military intelligence - spies sent in - to an inn run by a prostitute. "Brothels were the motels of the ancient world."
Outside Jericho, burials found, skeletons 3,500 years old.
Canaanites were not evil. Good, normal people, refined, loved the good things of life. They were intelligent. The Canaanites were the first to use an alphabet. 40 characters replaced cuneiform, and led to our alphabet today. [All this is left out in the Bible.]
(17:45) Joshua supposedly crosses the Jordan and sets a camp. March around the city for 6 days with priests blowing trumpets. Fate giving way to fiction? Other armies use the same strategy. The Romans did that - marching up to a city and away, up and away. Then they all shout, bringing the walls down. All but Rahab killed.
Sound engineer says sound can move a powder. "Sound waves break the bonds between the powder particles." Brick is unaffected by sound. CONCLUSION: "The walls of Jericho may well have fallen down, but it wasn't sound that did it,"
So what brought them down? The Bible says that the Jordan stopped flowing for the priests. A force strong enough to block a river could destroy a city too.
When the river stopped flowing, the water level dropped, and the priests could cross over on dry land. Like 1927 when an earthquake blocked a river for 2 days. So an earthquake could have destroyed Jericho as well. Garstang discovered that earthquakes stuck Jericho several times,. Garstang said that is just what happened.
But there's a problem. Garstang asked Kathleen Kenyon to re-examine his findings.
Garstang missed crucial evidence regarding dating,
She found in the 1950s - Jericho was destroyed in 1550 BC. In Joshua's time, the city was uninhabited.
The Bible describes an invasion and conquest of many cities. But archaeology shows that most of them were not inhabited at the time.
So, if not by invasion, how did the early Israelites come to Canaan.
Merneptah stele first mention of Israel in 1207 BC. This gives us a benchmark date.
1225-1175: an earthquake destroys
cities from Palestine to Greece and
This is "an earthquake storm."
Along the North Anatolian fault, the storm progressed east to west from 1939 to 1957 and again from 1992 to 1999, when it reached Istanbul.
So the Israelites peacefully occupied abandoned land.
Tell-tale signs of a new and distinctive people suddenly appear.
Israel Finkelstein: At Izbet Sartah, new house plan in the highlands. Silos for grain. In the Iron Age I, there are no pig bones.
They had always lived there. No immigration, no invasion, Israelites evolved out of Canaanites.
Their pottery was downscale Canaanite - no decorations, Poorer version of Canaanite society.
On the coast of Syria, archaeologists found an archive of documents about King Keret of Ugarit - he brought down cities with trumpet blasts.
Jews, Israeli Arabs and Palestinian Arabs of today have the same DNA as the bones of the old Canaanites.
The Israelites were Canaanites.
But what about all the historical and geographical detail in the Bible story?
They embellished the story with myths.
FLASH: Davidovitz on the Merneptah Stele - Israel could be a mistranslation.
what was i referring to here?
|Expert Scholars [ no institutions given ]:
[FOLLOWING EVENTS ARE NOT IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER.]
Outside the Bible, no evidence of his existence.
The House of David inscription - the Tel Dan Stele (870-750 BC).
David vs. Goliath.
David attacks Saul's depression but gets no thanks for it
(36:45) David leaves a trail of bodies on his way to the throne. This is a real human in a rough racket in a rough neighborhood. This is not the David of Michelangelo. He is a far cry from the traditional David.
David goes to work for the Philistines!
David chooses Jerusalem has his new capital for the United Kingdom.
Was this water system myth or reality?
The Bible protects David's image until he becomes King. Then it changes.
[IT'S NARRATIVE HISTORY - LIKE THE RAPE CULTURE STORY OF THE UVA GANG RAPE IN ROLLING STONE.
AND THERE'S THE PRIDE IN THE VILLAINY. SEE HOW WONDERFUL OUR BOOK IS, SHOWING THE WARTS OF THE HERO?]
|Experts [ no institutions given ]:|
|If we focus on the man, not the crime, we may establish a motive for the crime. He is perfect for the "new science of psycho-biography."|
|Story of the Massacre|
Herod the Great (74-4 BC) became the governor of Galilee at age 25.
Except for one line in Matthew, there is no ancient record of this crime.
Josephus knows nothing of it.
|Story of Herod, the Psychopath, and his large family|
|Josephus tells the story of Herod's family:
Stories of the Messiah, desired by the Jews, terrified him.
h building, he was "an architectural genius and higly cultured man." At governing, he was a paranoid maniac.
|Back to the Massacre.|
With so much evidence of Herod's villainy, why are the sources silent on this story?
Perhaps - Herod's killing of his sons was confused with the infants in Bethlehem, since they both too place in the same year.
CONCLUSION: Psycho-history shows that Herod was a paranoid maniac.
|Experts [no institutions given]
|Revelation (uncovering) warns against Emperor worship, it does not predict the end of the world.|
Stylometry: John of Revelation is not John of Gospel.
Meaning on the author of Revelation.
Meaning of Apocalypse.
What of the most famous prophecy - the beast, 666?
Then came the Oxyrhynchus papyri.
The truth about Revelation is to be found in the past, not in the future.
[ So the human folly of reading in interpretations and predictions that are not there came to define Revelation as being about predictions and missing the message? ]
Their aqueduct remains. Completed under King Herod in 22 BC.
The only other structure to remain in the Theatre, now restored and used for productions.
It contained a temple to the Roman Emperor, Augustus. There are outlines of an ancient harbor, now covered by the sea.
In Jerusalem today, a museum of crosses. Olive trees. The upright would stay in place, the victim carrying only the cross bar. A seat will be put on the upright if the plan is to prolong the agony.
1947: Dead Sea Scrolls discovered.
"No Room at the Inn"
Mark, not Matthew, tells of the journey to Bethlehem and the "Inn."
villages built on hilltops for security
(14:21) - after commercials starting at 9:50 - total of 4:30 minutes)
houses two stories: people slept on roof in good weather, kept their animals in their mangers on the first floor. They gave off heat. So people sharing houses with animals is not unusual.
Families are living this way today in small settlements of Palestinians south of Bethlehem, Goats eat at one end, the people at the other end.
Caves also used as stables.
Pfann: Read Luke chapter 2 carefully. The couple did not go door to door, looking for room in a hotel, Joseph probably had friends in Bethlehem ("his ancestral home"), maybe other mothers to help bring in the baby.
Why put Jesus in the manger? "No room at the inn," word kataluma for "inn" also means "upper room." Meaning, no room in the upper room with the rest of the family.
The Wise Men
Astrology (two horoscopes) has been found in the Dead Sea Scrolls, therefore among the Jews in the time of Jesus, and origin of the star in the east.
Our calendar was created by the monk, Dennis the Little (Dionysius Exiguus), in the 6th century, who added the reigns of kings together, miscalculating by six years. So Jesus was born in 6 BC.
Aries represented Herod, and there was a prophecy of a king to conquer the world.
April 17, 6 BC -
All these indicated the birth of a super king, the Messiah.
If the wise men came from Persia, they could have stopped at Petra, a city of the Nabateans known for trading, and bought there the frankincense (scented smoke to purify temples), and myrrh (king-anointing oil), over which the Petrans had a monopoly.
(26:45) The Virgin Birth in the Animal World
In those days, death by stoning of women who shame the family with an unwed birth.
There are virgin births in the animal world, but the offspring are always female unless 2 rare conditions occur:
Celsus and Titalian [WHO???] made fun of the virgin birth.
So - since it was so bad to be a slut, the Christians must have believed the virgin birth to be true. (argument from something?)
Family of Jesus
So, now on to Nazareth, where Jesus grew up
(38:45) Nazareth gets few pilgrims as tourists,, The village is being reconstructed with attention to detail, making the village a living museum.
According to the gospels, Jesus had
Could be half-siblings.
Played with dolls, pets, and balls.
Nazareth never mentioned in ancient histories of Jews, so it must have been isolated.
Sepphoris, the capital of Galilee, was an opulent city, not far from Nazareth.
It was the northern home of Herod Antipas.
Jesus could have seen there how the upper class lived,
There was an uprising there, and the Romans burned the city to the ground(d.
(54:50) Jordanians find remains of a pilgrimage site between 3rd and 6th century AD. A pool was built at a monastery to re-enact the baptism of Jesus.
|While the priests serve the rich, Jesus come for the poor|
A Messiah is coming. One would expect him to have soldiers as disciples?
Jesus and the Four Fishermen (SAJJ)
But Jesus was not a military man, and his disciples were fishermen.
Simon Peter, a fisherman, his first recruit.
1985 - The great lake known as the Sea of Galilee dropped, due to a drought, and revealed, next to 2,000 year old pottery, "one of the great discoveries of modern times, an ancient fishing boat."
The boat filled up with silt clay from a nearby river after it sank, So it was well-preserved.
40 BC - 40 AD. Whoever owned that boat was well-to-do.
Then Peter's brother, Andrew, and two other fishermen, James and John.
Mordechai thinks he has found the house of Peter in Capernaum. [It has a dog-gone church built over it.]
A woman - but not a "disciple"
Jesus "is the only teacher we know of from antiquity who includes women into his group." Including a Samaritan woman. The disciples were upset at that. 12 disciples, like 12 tribes, meant a fresh start.
The Pharisees ran the Temple for Power and Profit
Every day at dawn and dusk the Pharisees drew lots to make their sacrifices of pure white lambs. They sprinkled the blood in front of a large curtain in the Sanctuary. God dwelt behind the curtain.
OH! The Essenes, who led the community at Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, were also critics of the temple system, just like Jesus. Their community at Qumran was a rival to the community at the Temple
They criticized the priests for keeping secrets and talking as much money from the temple budget as possible.
1967 - found the lavish lifestyle enjoyed by the high priests. The archaeologists had 14 years to excavate before the area of Jerusalem was redeveloped. What they found lies underground, lavish houses and one had a ritual bath. The Jews believed that contact with a corpse or a dead animal or bodily fluids such as blood made them ritually unclean and they had to purify themselves.
Every town had a public bath.
But this house had several so it had to belong to a top priest
The priests had a bridge linking their mansion to the temple, so as to avoid the common people.
The Mania for Purity
The priests manipulated purity laws to keep the undesirables down.
If a menstruating woman touches a mattress, it was impure and had to be purified.
Purity was an obsession, a mania.
The Mishnah said that the lame, the blind, the sick, the deformed were all forbidden to enter the temple -- the very people Jesus wanted to reach.
Jesus healed a lame man at a pool of spring water at Bethesda in Jerusalem, and that place existed. It was just outside the Sheep Gates at the north of the city. An ancient temple to Asclepius was there and a [group] of rock pools. They also had lots of baths, including small ones for the outcasts at night. The attitude was, you deserved your misfortunes.
Jerash in Jordan, built from taxes, from Jewish tax collectors who worked for Rome and kept a cut for themselves. They were outcasts, so Jesus welcomed them.
When Jesus forgave a prostitute, the Priests were outraged. But Jesus said, he was just obeying the law to love one's neighbor.
The Good Samaritan.
But Jesus didn't stop there. He told stories that were upsetting. The parable of the Good Samaritan. The Samaritans had earlier become enemies of the Jews, even worshipping the same god, So loving thy neighbor meant loving you enemy. This was bad.
Jesus is a barrier breaker. When you destroy a barrier, you might be destroyed by its collapse.
Aramaic is still spoken in parts of Syria and in Syrian Orthodox Churches.
The Turn the Other Cheek Story (Tom Wright)
In antiquity, when a man would hit you on your right cheek, it would be with the back of his right hand, a dismissive gesture given to inferiors, such as a slave or a child, or a woman. To say, now hit the other cheek, it meant now hit me with the palm of your hand, meaning that we are equals. You maintain your dignity with wry humor at the expense of the bully who's putting you down. This was Irony, Wry Humor. Jesus is not saying, Be a Doormat.
Jesus is rejecting the violence of previous messiahs. If you fight evil with evil, evil will win. He proposed pacifist resistance.
No leader, no prophet in Jewish history, had spoken in such terms.
Worse, he took his message to the gentiles. A Roman centurion asked him to heal a servant, and Jesus did it.
But the Messiah was traditionally only for the Jews. Jesus broke with tradition.
Then Jesus took his message to Jerusalem, under the very noses of the priests.
He rides through the fabled East Gate, mounted on a donkey (from Zechariah) on the eve of Passover.
Pontius Pilate had to come down from Caesarea with troops in case of trouble.
In the temple courtyard, the pilgrims had to exchange their impure coins for pure temple coins, with which to buy blemish-free white doves for sacrifice. The permanently impure, such as the sick, were kept out by guards. Jesus let the money changers know what he thought. A deliberately calibrated act.
12 hours before his death, Jesus began provoking his enemies. Why?
At the Passover meal, Jesus told Judas "to go do what he had to do."
Matthew: Judas was the only disciple whom Jesus called a friend.
On the way home, rest in Gethsemane, where he sweated blood.
SWEATING BLOOD: Hematidrosis [hemidrosis, hematohidrosis] can happen to people under extreme emotional stress, like those awaiting execution. Not stigmata. Capillaries supplying the sweat glands break,
JUDAS: The Greek word paradidomi is mistranslated as betrayal.
It is always translated as "handed over" elsewhere except in the case of Judas.
It is s para dido mi, meaning "hand over," or, here, "handed over." The handing over is police work. Police must be paid. That explains the thirty pieces of silver.
There was another messianic pretender in the region. Taheb, a Samaritan, was also preaching to large crowds at the foot of Mt. Gerizim.
Caiaphas needed a crime to sell to the people. He gets blasphemy, deserving to die under Jewish and Roman law.
CRUCIFIXION: Turns out that the hands can support the weight of the body if the feet are also nailed in place. As soon as the weight is put on the feet, the hands hold okay.
The Romans sometimes had 500 rebels to crucify in a day. They used roads lined with olive trees, which were used as crosses.
Often tombs are built in quarries, easiest way to get rid of an unclean thing like a corpse.
How could Jesus have survived the cross, so that he could walk out of the tomb?
MANDRAKE: an anesthetic plant at the time, It renders people as if they are dead, insensitive to pain. Soaked in a sponge several times to become saturated.
Dioscorides, a doctor, wrote about mandrake.
Hyacine vapor is released for breathing in.
Vinegar was used to dissolve medicines.
Certainly, there are reports of people having survived crucifixion.
Josephus had three friends near Bethlehem who had been crucified. One of the men lived happily ever after.
BUT - 4 man teams of Romans did the crucifixions, one is the exactor mortis who used a spear to make sure of death. Also there a loss of body fluid.
Little or no intermarriage among Jews of his time. The portraits of Jesus with the long thin face are not found in Israel. A complete different type, The Jewish skull is wider and rounder.
EARLIEST PICTURES OF JEWISH PEOPLE IN THE WORLD: From a synagogue in Syria of the 3rd century. Short, curly hair, Afro in style, and a short cropped black beard.
Paul to the Corinthians, disgraceful for a man to have long hair. He knew some disciples of Jesus.
Afro-Asiatcs in the genealogy of Jesus. Darker skin.
Problem Never Mentioned:
Narrator: "A gigantic eruption took place in the 16th century BC, well within the time frame of the life of Moses."
But the lifespan of Ramesses II was 1290-1224.
(1) Exodus story - "archaeology is adding weight" to that.
No evidence of wandering in the wilderness? None has been found, and charred bones can last thousands of years. But there is:
Evidence of Semitic writing in the Sinai:
(2) Moses in the bulrushes.
(3) "Monotheism was the fruit of much later Jewish thinkers."
What evidence that Santorini affected Egypt?
A tidal wave caused the Parting of the Sea of Reeds.
A tidal wave allows Jews to pass, but kills the Egyptians
(5) At "the mountain of god," Moses gets the 10 commandments.
[ Yet Wikipedia says of this theory of Ananti:
(6) The whole story of Moses takes place in North Africa.
Look at the Ark from the Eyes of Science and
"prove that a global flood did cover the whole earth."
Noah's complexity noted:
Problems of the Ark Story : Size [ see Battle of the Boats ]
Saul was hired by Jews to wipe out the Christian movement, stone them to death in quarries.
The leaders of the Jesus movement were James, brother of Jesus, and Peter, both Jews who kept the law.
On the way to Damascus, Saul had a vision and became Paul. An advantage he had was Roman citizenship, and he was a prolific letter-writer, the letters dictated to followers.
Paul preached the Messiah to the Jews that the Law was obsolete, and they hated him and tried to kill him, but he got wind of the intention and escaped over the wall of a town in a basket.,
Peter and James kept to the law. Once Paul had them to dinner and they ate with the Gentiles, but later changed their minds and regretted that act. Paul traveled to Jerusalem and compromised with them. He would preach to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews
Paul decided to hit the outlying cities first, then save Rome for last.
Maps in those days were not so good,. They used precise itineraries, lists of town to town they must traverse,
When he got to Philippi, how meet his first convert? He went to a fabric maker, who used purple dye, Lydia. Women were excluded from pagan cults. And Lydia would take to a tent maker, a fellow in fabrics and she would have a large network. She becomes a believer.
Lydia was the first Christian convert in Europe. He won many more converts in Philippi, but then he started preaching and healing in public. He was thrown in prison. According to Luke, an act of God saved Paul. An earthquake broke open his cell, and he convinced the magistrates to set him, a Roman citizen, free.
(41) An earthquake can release ball lightning on the ground, which can dazzle a person for a while. Is that what happened on that earlier road to Damascus? It can blind people for several days. [Why mention this now? Haven't we passed on from that?]
Corinth, 300 miles south of Philippi, and known for sexual promiscuity. One big red-light district. But pagans were receptive. Tent makers found him a place to preach. He prompted speaking in tongues.
"Leaving the Corinthian church in such a state of turmoil was a decision that would come back to haunt him."
Heads for Ephesus, capital of Asia Minor and home to cult of Artemis. Paul, once more in prison. Corinthians wrote him of trouble there, his hard work there unraveling, He came up with a tactical masterstroke -- he wrote them a letter, one of the most famous letters in Christendom.
(53:44) Now goes to deliver money to Jerusalem church, but many wanted to reject it since he went along,did not adhere to the law. They wanted Paul to show he was a good Jew by helping a head shaving ceremony, and Paul went along. Then he was recognized. Fellow Jews who believed in Jesus the messiah called for his arrest. [AGAIN!]
After two years in prison, he gets on a boat to Rome.
This was after 35 years of missionary work.
Boat runs into the rocks at Malta, the fourth shipwreck Paul had survived. So a delay then he's back to Rome. Still under arrest, meets visitors. In prison there another two years.
His letters stop, and there is nothing in Luke's Acts about Paul's fate.
Traditions of the church give a bad ending for Paul, executed by Roman authorities.
But his letters lived on and became missionary tools around the Roman empire, making his mission a success.