|Divinity at its very source is human. -- Jane Harrison, Themis [Stone's Zeus]|
|Cable on the Ancients - Pagans|
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|"A series examining feared and experienced warriors of the past"|
|1||47 Ronin||10/3/2014||Samurai plot to avenge the death of their lord||[ Wiki ]|
|2||Ghost Warriors||10/10/2014||Germanics with spears, slingshots, javelins and clubs.||[ Wiki ]|
|3||Berserkers||10/17/2014||8th-century Vikings raid a monastery off England's coast||[ Wiki ]|
|4||Hawaiian Koa||10/24/2014||Koa warriors in Hawaii practice a martial art called lua||[ Wiki ]|
|5||Ninja||10/31/2014||Ninja during the 16th century in Japan||[ Wiki ]|
|6||Assassins||11/7/2014||In 11th-century Persia, Hassan-i Sabbah's trained killers||[ Wiki ]|
|7||Spartans||11/21/2014||Spartan warriors clash with Persians at Thermopylae||[ Wiki ]|
|8||Varangian Guard||11/28/ 2014||Byzantine emperors' bodyguards from Scandinavia||[ Wiki ]|
|9||Eagle Warriors||12/5/2014||Aztec Eagle warriors capture enemies for sacrifice.||[ Wiki ]|
|10||The Sicarii||12/12/2014||Extremists vow to liberate Judea from the Romans||[ Wiki ]|
These are the Masada people - not the Bar Kochbas.
AD 60 - terrorist attacks on Roman soldiers and their collaborators by a guerilla group, much like Al-Qaeda today. These are the Sicarii, strictly observant Jews, who would not accept any foreign rule over them.
The sicarius is a small curved sword, easily concealed, able to cut to the bone.
But opposition to Rome is not easy. The Sicarii practice asymmetric warfare, using force multipliers:
Test on sand bags full of chicken innards and pig's blood.
Their leaders are
Menahem ben Jair was a Leader of the Sicarh. He was a grandson of Judas of Galilee, the founder of the Zealot party, of which the Sicarii were a branch. Menahem checked the lawlessness of the Sicarii, who, under his leadership, in 66 C.E., stormed the fortress of Masada and slew the Roman garrison. Later they entered the fortress of Antonia, after its garrison had been forced to retreat by the Zealots under Eleazar ben Ananias, and ruthlessly murdered the maimed and helpless left behind by the Romans. Exulting in his successes, Menahem now demanded the leadership of the Zealots, sought recognition as the Messiah, and led his men into still more cruel acts of violence. Eleazar ben Ananias, realizing that the Sicarii were a menace, turned the Zealots against Menahem, who fled to Ophla, but was captured and executed. He was succeeded by his brother Eleazar.
Gessius Florus cracks down in 66 AD. orders theft of artifacts in the Temple treasury. Remove quarter of a million dollars for unpaid taxes.
Angry Jews gather on the streets in noisy demonstrations.
Florus makes a mistake, sending in troops to put down the demonstration.
4,000 are executed or crucified.
He has misread the public mood.
The whole city turns on the Romans, tens of thousand of new Jewish fighters on the street fighting the infidel. Florus has unwittingly played into the hands of Sicarii. They don't have enough weapons so they steal from Romans. Guerilla raid on an isolated Roman fort on shores of Dead Sea and seize the armory. Overrun the Roman garrison. Romans flee the city. Jerusalem is liberated.
Newfound Jewish unity falls apart. The leaders know Rome can't be defeated, and want a deal with Rome.
Sicarii want none of that. Jew against Jew in running battles Then the Sicarii go too far. They impose their own severe law on the city, overreaching themselves. Now Jerusalem rises up against them.,
They kill Menahim ben Jahir.
Eleazar ben Yahir [Eleazar ben Ya'ir] is their new leader, who received orders from God. A guerilla HQ crossed with religious community. It's a tough place to live. Have to save up water for the summer. Eleazar commands raids on surrounding villages.
For a successful guerilla raid - reconnaissance, reconnaissance, reconnaissance - principle followed today. Way in, way out, what to grab.
Ein Gedi, small oasis village, brutal attack. Chase the Jews out, kill 700 of them, steal food and balsam, a valuable fragrance, an aromatic resin from nearby wild plants, one of the lucrative trades of them time, using it like the Taliban used opium to fund their resistance. Maybe intended to monopolize trade in that.
The Sicarii flee the city and hold up at Masada.
By AD 71, lots of people living there.
SIEGE OF MASADA
Flavius Silva mounted the attack on Masada, using 15,000 Roman soldiers and Jewish prisoners of war for hard labor. Surround the fortress, they lay siege. Isolate them. Use the POWs to build a wall around the mountain. This wall is still there today. The Sicarii have lost their mobility, their greatest advantage.
Then Masada has an Achilles heel, the west side, a natural spur of rock. Silva orders the POWs to use it to build a ramp up the mountain. No big deal for Roman engineers. Eleazar tried to obstruct the ramp by dropping rocks on the workers.
"Once you choose to sit in a fortress, you are doomed."
Then the Romans begin to break in. Prospect of death, rape, slavery. Fanatical groups like the Sicarii never surrender. Fight to the death. Decide on suicide. Set fire to the fortress.
Each man kills his own wife and children.
Then 10 men selected by lot to kill the others.
Then one man kills the other nine, then himself.
Two women and three children are said to have survived.
Sicarii today regarded as heroic freedom fighters.
Said Judas Iscariot got his name from the Sicarii.
Ancient Assassins: The Spartans
Season 1, Episode 7
Lacedaemon, southern Peloponnesus
Only professional army in Greece
Begins at birth for each man. There is a pit outside Sparta for the weaklings.
Training starts at seven. Similar to elite special forces today. Graduate at 18. Come back with the shield or on it.
Not enough to eat. Have to steal, punished only if caught.
"Steal the cheese" festival yearly. Chaps on rocks beat off the hungry youngsters.
The Krypteia is the secret operations force, the elite of Sparta. Like Seal Team 6. Initiation ritual: kill a helot, a member of the Spartan servant class, state sanctioned murder. He must master camouflage and concealment.
Speed Aggression Surprise - the SAS acronym.
In the phalanx, even the second row can deliver a killing blow.
Persians invade Greece, Xerxes's father humiliated before, he wanting revenge. Greeks in council turn to Leonidas and use the size of the Persian army against itself by slowing it down. Set up their phalanx at Thermopylae.
Leonidas, leading his troops, is 60 years old.
Persian spy watches the Spartans oiling and combing out their long hair, and he concludes that they are girly men. He brings the news to Xerxes.
In first attack by infantry, Persians expect easy victory. For the Spartans, this is like a training exercise.
There's a secret pass across the mountains above Thermopylae. Leonidas hears of this. Dispatches Greeks from Phokis to guard against that.
Persians send in the Immortals. Always 10,000 of them, now against 300. They must go at night, unheard of in those days.
Thermopylae in August is like a furnace, 100 degrees.
Water is a top priority. 3 gallons a day for each man.
Two days and the Spartans still hold the pass. A local Greek reveals the secret pass over the mountains to Xerxes. Persians can have the Spartans surrounded by daybreak.
"Night missions are almost unheard of in ancient warfare due to the enormous confusion nighttime can cause. This is how desperate Xerxes is getting." Persians want to launch an attack from behind at day break. Runners from the Greeks at that pass tell Leonidas the news. He will. be outflanked.
Leonidas orders his own night time attack. Aim is the tent of Xerxes. It isn't clear what happens next, but Xerxes survived. Only thing left is a final stand.
Persians attack from both sides. Phalanx is useless. Fight with short swords and never give up.
Xerxes calls in archers to finish off Spartans, having lost 20,000 men.
Within a year, Xerxes is defeated on land and sea.
Go, tell the Spartans, stranger passing by,
|Serials - Ancient Discoveries|
|[ wiki ].|
Ancient Discoveries: Egyptian Warfare
Season 3, Episode 6
Produced by Wild Dream Films for The History Channel®
© 2006 A&E Television Networks.
|The Battle of Qadesh - between Ramesses II and Muwatalli|
Egypt was a great place to live because of the abundant food. You find stories of people from elsewhere heading down to Egypt in times of famine.
Egypt had in infantry of spearmen and archers
-- the mace
Earlier, the Egyptians adapted the weapons of the Hyksos.
-- the penetrative axe
--- leather body armor - not as good as the Hittite armor made from strips of metal overlapping
-- shields - wood covered with leopard hide
-- the khopesh - curved blade
-- straight-edged sword, tapered to a point
-- composite bow - adapted from the Hyksos
Then It would take 18 months to 2 years for this to dry and set. Today's equivalents are fiberglass and carbon fiber -- the same thing. Horn is carbon. The sinew was fiberglass.
You can go into battle with the composite bow already strung. You don't have to wait until the last moment.
-- Egyptian chariots
-- The Hittite chariot
Ancient Egyptians had no horse and chariot before the New Kingdom.
(52:11) The Egyptians had lost the province of Qadesh in Syria 50 years before Ramesses came to the throne. The loss caused no problems, but the Egyptians were obsessed with getting it back.
Chariot on battlefield not to attack the infantry but to frustrate their movement to get tactical advantage. Swoop in, barrage of arrows, then sharp turn to get away fast, letting off move arrows in retreat.
In the battle, it was Ramesses rallying his men against a surprise Hittite assault. He gets the upper hand only when he can use his chariots on the open field. Muwatalli calls for a cease fire.
Egyptians and Hittites joined together against the Assyrians.
|Serials - Ancient Vice -|
|can't find any info on this - ???|
Season X, Episode Y
(2005) [H2 HD] - 2 hours
[ YouTube ]
Augustus creates a vast empire full of decadence that he fights all his life.
The market for the feast is the empire in microcosm.
romans obsessed with fish farming. Like lampreys for slaves who offend.
When Augustus came do dinner, he might do your wife.
A good banquet has good choreography. Who sits where determines status.
A slave breaks a crystal glass. The owner wants to throw him to the lampreys. Augustus has all the glasses smashed and the lamprey pool filled in and slave forgiven. Augustus at war with decadent Rome. Doing the wife of the host is very moral.
Ovid's Ars Amatoria irritates Augustus. Ovid says that a statue of Augustus is the best place to seduce women. Augustus has banished his grand daughter, then banishes Ovid to the Black Sea. He dies a miserable nine years later.
Frescoes of Pompeii. Pictures of sex between beautiful people is to be enjoyed by all, young and old. Priapus in the house of the Vetii wards off bad luck. Frescoes in public baths, found in 1986, open to public since 2001. In public view are forbidden sexual acts depicted. Purpose may have been comic. Boxes with number painted above, so people can remember where they put their clothes. Use of the mouth in sex was forbidden in Rome because the mouth was part of the countenance of her person.
Rome began with the rape of the Sabine women. The women take the women as husbands.
No sexual sin in Roman thought.
Augustan Rome has 32,000 registered prostitutes, and twice as many unregistered. Prostitution is not adultery for the man.
Augustus, then Tiberius - great peace and prosperity for Rome. But comes moral laxness, and the elder Tiberius becomes a total degenerate. Sergius Orata creates first artificial oyster bed. And a heated swimming pool.
Luxury not necessity was the mother of Roman invention. To bathe was to be Roman.
Romans had no problem with pedophilia. Tiberius had his minnows. When bored with them, he throws them off a high cliff at his Villa Jovis.
Claudius drooled. He was the only heterosexual emperor.
Gladiatorial combats designed to remind Romans of the cruelty needed to create an empire. Claudius loved people torn apart by beasts, especially criminals condemned to death.
The crowd had the final decision.
Human torches of Christians for the Roman fire impresses the Romans with Christian fortitude.
|Serials - Ancients Behaving Badly|
|[ sub-menu ] - home page at THC - Wikipedia - [ top-menu ]|
|A UK/Canada Co-Production FOR HISTORY
© 2009 Blink Films Limited and Yap Productions Inc.
|Run Time Per Part: 44:06 minutes / Video Aspect Ratio: 1.760|
|Narrator: Tom McCamus.|
Tiberius is an early version of Stalin, with files on all his enemies, real or imagined. The fattest file is on Germanicus, a true war hero.
37 AD - A well-beloved Emperor . . .
37 AD - Becomes a Brutal Tyrant almost overnight
Coincident with a mysterious illness
What do we say of the causes?
AD 39 (age 27) - He undertakes a military mission
Did Caligula have a death wish?
Caligula was a "stone-cold psychopath," a
killer without remorse
Ancients Behaving Badly : 2 - Attila (434-453)
Attila's history was written by Romans.
Ammianus Marcellinus (ca. 325 - ca. 391)
Priscus (ca. 410 - ca. 472)
Jordanes, a Roman writer (fl. 551)
Sidonius Apollinaris, Gallic poet (430-489)
447 - Attila wipes out the Romans at the Battle of the Utus in Bulgaria
Romans hire Huns as mercenaries
Psychological warfare takes the biggest prize of all
His violence is not directed to any end. He destroys for destruction's sake.
|"When he isn't in bed with other men's wives,
he's always up for some genocide."
In history's mass-murderers, "Caesar is up there will Hitler and Stalin." - Faulkner
A childhood of shame
Sex as a route to power
Captured by pirates
Genocide is a way to Wealth
49 - 45 BC - Caesar's Civil War
Caesar's "Epilepsy" [according to McGlachlan]
Dictator for life - age 56.
"Caesar's violence is directed toward building an empire with himself in the center."
|"Was Hannibal a great general, or just a ruthless killer?"|
| Precis of Hannibal's Wars on Rome
|Childhood in a land of human sacrifice
|"Alexander the Annihilator"|
Alexander was a mama's boy who barely knew his father.
a pattern of excessive and needless cruelty without remorse, some some features of a psychopathic killer, but he is not all about bloodlust. Much violence is goal directed.
Alexander and Napoleon:
Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder
Tacitus and Suetonius, the gossip columnists of their day
Agrippina the Younger, Puppet-Master
The Ptolemies have ruled Egypt for 300 years.
Incest and murder are parts of this Ptolemid family
That set the pattern for Cleopatra herself
The stories about Cleopatra's sexuality
The roll in the carpet
|Season 2, Episode 1
[ Wikipedia stub ]
Produced by Gardner Film for HISTORY
© 2006 A&E Television Networks
| Narrator: Bob Boving
"Clancy Brown narrated both seasons."
The Vandals sweep west and settle on the Spanish coast.
|Serials - Battles BC|
|[ sub-menu ] - home page at THC - Wikipedia - [ top-menu ]|
|"The show was known for its very gritty nature, visual effects similar to the film 300 and its highly choreographed fight scenes with various weapons."|
Produced by Four in Hand Entertainment Group, Inc.
© 2009 A&E Television Networks.
|Critique - "This series is a joke, right?" (reddit)|
Some unknown ambassador to the Carthaginians
Publius Cornelius Scipio (died 211) Roman general
Gnaeus Servilius Geminus (died 216) Roman consul
Gaius Flaminius Nepos, consul in 217 with Geminus.
Lucius Aemilius Paullus , Roman consul
Gaius Terentius Varro, Roman consul
Punic - Latin Punicus (or Poenicus), for "Carthaginian", from Phoenician ancestry
Hamilcar Barca (275-228 BC)
The First Punic War (261-241 BC)
The Second Punic War (218-201 BC)
Hannibal marches into Italy with little trouble.
12/218 - Disaster at the Trebia River.
217 - March through the Arno marshes into central Italy [no Wikipedia article].
06/21/217 - Battle of Lake Trasimene.
Rome appoints a dictator, Quintus Fabius Maximus.
Paullus and Varro are sent to defeat Hannibal as quickly as possible.
They takes turns commanding on different days.
Varro sends 80,000 to attack Hannibal. "Most massive Roman fighting force ever to take the field at one time."
08/216 - Battle of Cannae - Hannibal defeats the Romans in SE Italy.
Hannibal's war may have been the impetus that turned Rome into an Empire.
|"Behind the heroic legend, lies a tale of relentless ambition, ... violent murder, ... conquests on the battlefield ... and in the bedroom. David's quest will ultimately unite a people, but not before it tears a country apart."|
Abner - cousin of Saul
Hadadezer - king of Aram fought David - no mention of this in Wikipedia.
Saul was the first king of a United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.David makes his name in the wars against the Philistines.
David unites with the Philistines against Saul of Israel.
David launches a civil war against Ishbaal to become king of all Israel.
|| | Aram
c | Ammon
a | Moab
n | Edom
In this entire episode, the only date given is the 14th century BC - the1300s.
Joshua, by Biblical chronology, lived 1355-1245 BC (LBA).
"The story of the battle is not supported by the archaeological evidence, and almost all scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value."Interesting, then, that Gabriel gets so much out of that invention
"Joshua's military might is first described in the Bible during the great exodus campaign out of Egypt in the 14th century BC."
First skirmish with the Amalekites shows weaknesses in their army.
40 Years at Kadesh-Barnea
"Several other tribes in the Jordan Valley"
Jericho - all four experts agree about the red cord:
Bethel and Ai, towns on a strategic spine of Canaan.
Will this defeat blunt the psychological shock wave he had sent at Jericho?
The strategic city of Gibeon - is to be defended!
Joshua's successor is General Giáp.
|The Siege of Alesia - 52 B.C. [ wiki ]|
(1) After a 300 history of mutual slaughter. Gauls had sacked Rome in the 3rd century.
(2) For six years Caesar had been trying to subdue Gaul into a province. Now he had 50,000 troops. Caesar had no military experience until he entered Gaul, and he left us his memoirs. He had a professional army and the Gauls did not. He had to defeat hundreds of little armies, and he became ruthless in doing so. It was a reign of terror.
(3) Vercingetorix united all the tribes under his leadership. He had fought in the Roman legions, being a calvary man in Caesar's army.
He leads 70,000 soldiers into Orleans and do their own terror on 5,000 civilians. Vercingetorix knows he cannot have one all-out battle with Caesar, he had to pick at him. He has the Gauls torch their own towns and countryside -- scorched earth.
52 BC - Vercingetorix attacks Dijon. He loves the broadsword, the Romans the gladius, a stabbing weapon.
(4) Then Vercingetorix retreats. He chases Caesar to block him from going into Italy, but he's too late. There is a skirmish. Vercingetorix withdraws into his main supply base, Alesia, hoping that Caesar will go on to Rome, and they will take up the battle later. But Caesar follows him and surrounds the city with 50,000 men. Now he is trapped, and guerilla war is no longer possible.
The modern city is Alise-sainte-Reine. 5 miles in circumference surrounded by a wall six feet high. Sits on a small hill 1500 feet above a valley Two rivers along either side. There are 5,000 people there.
The siege works created by Caesar are just ingenious, and they had never been used before.
Previously, had slaughtered lots of Germans, build 400 foot long suspension bridge over the Rhine, then, after killing 430,000 in an act of butchery, he crosses back over the Rhine and destroyed the bridge. The lesson: the Rhine is nothing.
(5) Vercingetorix sends all his 15,000 cavalry to get reinforcements from Gaul. Critical decision. Now he can't harass the Romans who can build the siege works at their leisure.
(6) Then Caesar builds
(7) Gauls consider cannibalism, but Vercingetorix rejects it. He expels the women and children from the city, giving them to the Romans, but Caesar rejects them, so they have to return, but Vercingetorix will not let them back in - they remain in no-man's land. Finally, Vercingetorix relents and lets them back in. Caesar has won another war of wills.
(8) 60,000 relief army lead by Comminus, another Gaul who had once fought with Caesar. He fights Romans "on the outside." Caesar sends calvary, then reinforcements with perfect timing to drive the Gauls back to the hills, massacring the archers who had supported the cavalry. The Gauls assault ends in disgrace.
Vercingetorix somehow coordinates a night-time attack with Comminus. Romans repel the Gauls, using stones thrown from the wall. "In between the walls," Vercingetorix is pummeled. Huh? They got in? All the Gauls must retreat. Absolute genius, this Caesar. Gauls are starving. Find a weak spot in the wall, where the river runs through, go in the woods to hide, then attack the next day. Vercingetorix mounts and inside and outside attack. Caesar sends troops to stop up the hold in the wall, and the Gauls cannot get through fast enough. Gauls tear at the wall with mural hooks. (This is backwards, the defenders use hooks.) Caesar puts on his red cloak, commands four cohorts into the fray, preventing the Roman line from breaking. Caesar is the victor in this hard to visualize battle.
(8) Caesar spares the Gauls who had fought him, a big change for him. But Vercingetorix had to pay. October 1, 52 BC - Vercingetorix surrenders. Basic tactical error - scraps guerilla war method for a defense of a town. He's executed. Rome won't fight the Gauls for another 400 years.
(9) Sherman of the march through Georgia uses the tactics that Caesar used, and he won.
(10) Allowed Romanization of western Europe, so the Gauls thought of themselves as Romans.
|"Moses is on the warpath to the promised land."|
(01:20) "Good reading of Exodus reveals a first-rate military mind. Moses practiced deception as great as any other man in military history."
So let's retell the story from the soldier's point-of-view.
"Real question. Who are the Israelites? Why are they in Egypt? Why doesn't Pharaoh want them to leave?"
(1) The Israelites as the Habiru, a tribe of warriors and thieves.
(10:50) 14th century BC., the Israelites leave Canaan and enter Egypt.
They lived in Goshen for 200 years. Theory that they played a major part in the military defense of Egypt. If the Israelites are the Habiru, a group of merchants, construction workers, and farmers as well as ferocious warriors. If so, they are in Goshen to defend Egypt from attacks from the north. They are mercenary soldiers stationed at the border as a trip-wire and known for their military skill.
Pharaoh Seti fears the Hebrews, mighty warriors, might join the rebellious Canaanites.
(19:45) Egypt is a land of "store-cities" and "cattle-raising estates." Provisions all around. Sack an estate. It's not a peaceful exit.
If you read the Hebrew, the Israelites were "armed to the teeth."
(2) Pillars of Smoke and Fire.
Heading toward Goshen, Moses finds them being pursued by Egyptians. He tells his generals to get off the road and head into the desert -- which must have seemed crazy to them. But Moses knows the desert. Moses "shows a level of military sophistication that is truly amazing. He uses his understanding of desert terrain to defeat the most powerful army of the time."
The pillars of smoke and fire are "common command and control devices used commonly by Egyptian armies of the day." At night, the brazier in uncovered; by day, it is half covered, producing smoke.
Alexander adopted this technique when he conquered Egypt.
So at night, the Egyptians, now pursuing the Israelites, see the pillar of fire and know that the Israelites are making camp.
But the fire is closest to Pharaoh, relative to the Israeli camp. It appears that the Israelites are headed in the wrong direction, back to Egypt. Or they are "astray in the land," lost and confused. They are stupid.
"Moses is about to perform a magic trick, make 25,000 Israelites disappear before the Egyptians' eyes."
Moses has turned his people around, so that the fire is at the rear of the column. The purpose is "both to deceive and blind the Egyptians."
Soldiers learn "night discipline," do not look into a bright light. It can take up to an hour before you can see again. So all the Egyptians could see is the bright light, while the Israelites, leaving the fire there, escaped.
The Israelites escaped across the Sea of Reeds, which Moses knew well, that at a certain time of day it can be crossed on foot. They cross where it is a tidal swamp, 20 miles south of the Mediterranean..
When the Egyptians get there, the tide is rolling in. The chariots get stuck in the muddy swamp.
(3) Moses and his Praetorian Guard.
(32:50) 3 months later, Amalekites ambush from behind.
Under Joshua, the Israelites win, with Moses signalling from a mountain top.
But they cannot enter Canaan at this time. They need a larger, better-trained army. So Moses leads them south into the Sinai. The Cainites live there, and there are large copper and bronze mines, so maybe he went there for weapons.
The Israelites are angry and horrified by this lowly desert living. Where is that milk and honey? We see only sand and marsh water and spooky mountains lit by green flames.
When Moses finds the golden calf, he sends the Levis from tent to tent to destroy their brothers-- 3,500 in total. Moses is now "a divine dictator. No more debate."
Now to invade Canaan , he conscripts an army from the Israelites. It takes two years to train them into a mirror image of the Egyptian army, minus the chariots.
(44:00) Are we now ready to take the promised land? Reach Kadesh-Barnea. 12 miles from Canaan, meet with Moses. Scouts come back: "It's impossible."
Moses agrees, and waits 2 generations - 40 years.
(4) Jordan Valley campaign of extermination
It would be too much to attack the Canaanite strongholds directly, so he goes through the Jordan river valley to get to Canaan.
Strategy should dictate tactics.
But there he encounters the Ammonites. Joshua commands the army and wins.
Then Edom, Moab, Gilead. It's brutal slaughter, Why? The Israelites want to live in Canaan, not the Jordan Valley, so they do not want to leave a hostile force there at their back as they move forward. So, extermination. "Ruthless, yes, also practical."
(5) Mastery requires betrayal.
(53:45) Now the Midianites, a former ally for 40 years.
They have Midianite gods, and Israelis began to worship them. Yahweh says, kill them all, under Phinehas (or Phineas). He can't kill the women and children. He marches them back to camp. Moses is furious. They are all executed.
But these Jordan valley tribes are nothing compared to the Canaanites to come.
"Best now to train the army for the horror they will face in the future."
Then the ritual cleansing of the soldiers begins. PTSD.
(6) Death of Moses.
God says Moses can see Canaan from Mt. Nebo, but can't enter it. Once Moses had been angry and struck a rock with his staff. Lack of faith. That can't be it. What's going on here? Some speculate that the people rose up and killed Moses. This is because the Biblical reason is so absurd.
Analogy of outwitting without fighting: 1877 - Chief Joseph of the Nez Pierce Indian tribe against Gen. Sturgis forcing him back to a reservation. A thousand mile trek.
|TO DO: Distinguish heavy cavalry from light cavalry.|
331 - "Battle of Arbela"- the Battle of Gaugamela - changes the world - Alexander becomes emperor of all Persia.
Greece to Egypt to Afghanistan and five years later, he wants a new challenge.
325 - All that's between Alexander and India are two rivers, Indus and Hydaspes, and 750,000 soldiers.
He started two years earlier building boats to cross the Indus.
King Ambi, ruler of Taxila, a land in between the two rivers, near their sources, just north of Punjab. Alexander crosses the Indus and takes Taxila without opposition.
He reaches the Hydaspes with his break-down and re-build boats.: frames, animal skins, and buckets of tar.
Now he faces Porus of Paurava, a man matching Alexander in pride. He is over six feet tall, a giant by fourth-century standards.
Alexander offers diplomacy, but Porus declines.
Elephants - 200 war elephants, each taking 10 years to train. They respond to name-calls and to whistles, and they fought.
How get across the Hydaspes -- wide, deep, rapid -- without becoming a sitting duck. When in doubt, deceive and dissemble.
Now, about to cross the river, Alexander will find that the river has surprises of its own.
(17:45) A surprise two months in the making.
Three years earlier, they had fought the Central Asian nomads at Bactria and Sogdiana in modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. These are not nation-states, just tribal units -- just like today. They are guerilla fighters, archers mounted on horses who hit and run. Alexander reconfigures his army from the phalanx to light cavalry with archers in order to defeat them. It's this army he takes into India.
India was 16 kingdoms, all fighting each other. War was the normal state of affairs. They derive from the Aryans, dark people who were ferocious warriors with chariots, like those in Afghanistan today.
Alexander crosses the wild river. Stormy night, pitch black, raging current, rain, but this is all to Alexander's advantage -- it keeps down the noise and keeps Porus's pickets under cover.
But what he thinks is one island in the midst of the river is the first of two islands. Behind the visible island is a hidden island. Two more crossings, not one more. This was from a tactical error on his part, not enough reconnaissance. By dawn, they gain the other bank. The pickets pick it up, and Porus gets word.
But Alexander has divided his troops. A "fixing" or "pinning" force remains on the other side. Which is the main force? Which is the feint?
326 - "The Battle of the Hydaspes River - one of history's most brutal battles"
Porus decides, send a small contingent against Alexander. He leads a force of chariots and heavy cavalry. So Alexander sends his light cavalry to harass Porus, his fighters who learned their skills fighting in the eastern part of Persia.
Alexander's horse-mounted archers do hit and run. He takes the steam out of the Indian cavalry attack. Bunches them together, and then launches his heavy cavalry.
The elephants spooked the Greek horses. They had to be blinded
[Lots of tactical talk.]
(43:30) Alexander follows Porus's movements of his troop and by deception and surprise destroys his cavalry.
It's the "schwerpunkt" - critical point of the battle - Alexander is always at the point where the battle shifts, and he can improvise a new plan with ease while "being right out there with your guys." A rare talent.
The Indian army was not used to fighting in the rainy season. Their large bows, which had to be positioned in the ground, became useless.
[Lots of tactical talk.]
After seven hours, Alexander wins, but lets Porus live and keep his kingdom.
Alexander has what Napoleon called, the "coup d'oeil," the strike of the eye, the battle to glance at a battlefield and create a tactical plan that is to his advantage
But then the Indian lords abandon their rivalry and joined against Alexander.
His men realize that he is on a suicide mission. They've had enough. They return to Babylon, where he apparently dies of malaria, gets embalmed like a Pharaoh and placed in a crystal casket.
Schwartzkopf's "left-hook" strategy was Alexander's technique of a feint to disguise the real attack. He pretended to attack the Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait from the south, then attacked with his main force from hundreds of miles due west. Ground war in Desert Storm over in 100 hours..
In eleven years and over 20,000 miles, Alexander never lost a battle.
Why wasn't enough enough? There was no central Greece, only tribes fighting each other for glory.
(1) After the Hyksos period, Egyptians had better weapons, saw the need to expand north into the buffer area of the Amarru, and were thirsting for revenge. There had been skirmishes between Egypt and the Hittites for 30 years.
(2) The chariot is improved over the already superior Hittite chariot
You never sends tanks into battle without infantry support.
New Egyptian strategy, attack first, ask questions later. Made for Ramesses. Turn to the north for revenge and buffer land,
So how do chariots fight? Does one line attack the other? A little thinking shows that to be impossible. Horses will not charge a phalanx of infantry with spears. So the chariots engage indirectly in a swirling motion, each attempting to get around another one, en passant so the archer can kill the enemies.
(3) The Hittite chariots were large and slower than the Egyptian, with their axles in the middle. This allowed the chariot to carry all three principals, giving them an advantage over the Egyptians who were limited by an easily exhausted runner.
The Hittites had earlier conquered Mitanni. They inherited Kikkuli, the Mitanni horse trainer. He wrote a training manual allowing horses to pull a larger chariot with three men.
Hittites had a composite bow made of wood, horn, and ox tendon - a formidable weapon.
(4) Then a bizarre event happened in Egypt which would lead to war by chain reactions.
Tutankhamun died in 1323. His widow believed he had been poisoned. So she did not want to marry an Egyptian. The royal blood flowed through the woman not the man, so she could have married a commoner if she wished.
There had been turmoil for years between the monotheists and the polytheists. "A terrible bloody time in Egypt. Civil war erupts throughout Egypt, resulting in thousands of deaths." The polytheists had greater power and they were enemies of Tut's widow.
Her solution? Bring down the Egyptian kingdom. She writes to Suppiluliuma, asking for one of his sons to marry and become Pharaoh When her enemies hear of this, which is insane to them, they ambush the Hittite son and kill him. This angers Suppiluliuma. He resumes war against Egypt over the valuable Amarry region.
But in 1322 Suppiluliuma is killed by a plague that sweeps across Hatti, probably introduced by Egyptian prisoners.
Skirmishes die down.
(5) Ramesses II comes to the throne. He decides to attack with four divisions, which are divided up at Biblos, south of Kadesh
each with 6000 soldiers, 5.000 infantry, and 500 chariots. Idea is a pincer movement. The Hittites head south to met them.
Kadesh has casement walls faced with limestone, A successful battering ram against stone would not appear until the 8th century. So it was virtually impregnable.
(6) REALITIES: This march takes a 40 days for 24,000 men over 500 miles. You will lose 17% to injuries - sprains, broken bones, accidental deaths.
(7) He sets up camp with his 3 divisions, 10 miles south of Kadesh, near the forest of Robaui. But his 3 divisions are spread out over 15 miles.
Ramesses takes a pet lion with him, which he uses to intimidate some Shasu Bedouins they come across, who tell him that Muwatalli is 100 miles to the north in Aleppo, whereas he are already in the vicinity of Kadesh. This is a classic intelligence operation.
So Ramesses, impulsive, marches up to Kadesh.
When the battle field changes rapidly, one can confuse operational success with strategic goals. You change your strategic goals. This happened to Ramesses. Given the opportunity to take Kadesh, he took it, and so fell into the ambush.
(8) Muwatali springs his trap. After Ramesses leaves two divisions in the dust Muwatalli emerges from the orchard, surprises the divisions and decimates the Ptah division. Muwatali's move is brilliant. He had taken 2,000 Hittite chariots stealthily 2 1/2 miles down the Orontes River to hide in the orchards. He takes the Ra division in the flank and lays it to waste.
It is Ramesses's fault.
Some say the key to Muwatalli's success is the three-man chariot because of the horses trained for long endurance. He did not exhaust the runners, the chariot's main defense. "The ancient world had never seen chariots like the Hittites brought to Kadesh."
Ramesses watches the carnage from his camp with the Amun division. Muwatalli heads north toward them and engages in an infantry battle. The Hittites maul the Egyptians, and many of Ramesses's elite chariot teams desert him. Then the Hittites stop engaging in order to loot the camp. But that's not the real problem. 1,000 Hittite chariots and 10,000 infantry are waiting in reserve on the east side of Kadesh. "To have 10,000 infantry doing nothing doesn't make much sense." Muwatalli does not deploy them. This will prove costly.
(9) Ramesses takes his elite infantry and marches into the fray. It's an infantry battle, and the Hittites begin to fight furiously.
Still, Muwatalli does nothing. His decision will determine history. Hittite attack bogs down. Colossal mystery to scholars.
Then the Seti division appears with 5,000 infantry and 500 chariots. They reinforce Ramesses. Because of the crowded battlefield, Ramesses's chariots can maneuver more easily than the Hittites.
Finally Muwatalli acts, but he sends 1,000 chariots, not his infantry. They have a very hard time maneuvering in the Egyptian half-built camp.
Then the Ptah division attacks from the rear. now the Hittites are in a vise.
Muwatalli had made a major mistake. You don't throw good troops after bad. You don't send more troops to avoid a defeat only to exploit a victory.
A bad day for all of them.
(10) Muwatalli sends a message, let's disengage now. Ramesses agrees. Then records the battle as a great victory.
One last thing. Gather all the commanders of the chariots that deserted, makes them kneel, and Ramesses personally beheads them, the sons of some of the most powerful men in Egypt.
Custer fell into a trap similar to the one that befell Ramesses. He was chasing a group of Indians when he failed to detect the main force. He defeated a small force, then prepared to raid a small Indian village, then the main force took him in the flank.
1252 BC - Egyptians and Hittites ally to fight Iraq. Alliance for a century.
Persia was the largest empire the world had known -- in land, in population, in languages, and cultures.
THERE ARE TWO EVENTS BY WHICH ATHENS IRRITATES PERSIA.
(1) - 540 - Earlier Athens had fought Sparta. If the US marines had their own country, that would be Sparta. The Spartans helped the Athenians get rid of Hippias, then they would not go home. The Athenians had to turn to the Persian Empire to help them. Persia agrees if the Athenians make a sacred offer of earth and water, which meant, to the Persians, that Persia owns Athens. For the Athenians who invented mathematics, philosophy, and logic, "this was just a silly little ritual that meant nothing."
But Sparta attacked before Persia could help. Athenians defeat Sparta on their own. So the agreement with Persia was null and void, and they told that to Darius I (522-486), who sent demands for taxes.
(2) 540 BC - Persia absorbs Greek colonies in Ionia.
500 BC - The Greek states in Ionia rebel and Athens sent troops. They burn Sardis to the ground and a Temple to Cybele. Persians suppress the revolt.
Darius I vowed revenge. A servant whispers in his ear, thrice during dinner, "Sire, remember the Athenians." Bur first, the Indians. Egyptians, and Scythians need attending to.
First Persian Invasion of Greece - 492-490
Miltiades had been a tyrant of a Greek city-state in Ionia, once forced into the military service of Persia in the attack on the Scythians. He was in charge of the bridges over the Danube which were the Persians' way out. When Persia learned that he wanted to burn the bridges after the Persians, Miltiades had to flee for Athens. The Athenians arrested Miltiades for tyranny and put him in jail for two years. Under a sentence of death.
[Goof Lord! What keeps Miltiades going?]
(2) 490 BC - Marathon.
(1) Datis, the Persian commander, decides on a land campaign, instead of a naval attack directly on Athens.
They brought tons of marble on their ships for a triumphal monument.(3) Now, when the Persians attacked Greece, Athenians seek advice from Miltiades.
(4) Athenian democracy extends to the army.
The Athenians had to vote on what to do. The 5 to 5 tie-breaker is Callimachus, the polemarch, a ceremonial position in the Athenian army. Miltiades convinces him and the Athenians vote to attack, 10,000 will head east to the plains of Marathon. The Persian force is colossal. Persians pioneered integrating horse cavalry and infantry into a one-two punch.
(5) Being way outmanned, Miltiades goes defensive. He blocks up the Vrana Valley with a phalanx of troops. To the flanks of his phalanx, he piles up trees to keep the cavalry out.
The Persians had chosen the battlefield, but the Athenians chose the terrain. "Terrain, terrain, terrain."
[WTF! Are we at Vrana or Marathon?
First, an arrow barrage. It is ineffectual. The Greeks stand up and taunt the Persians.
(6) For what happens next, we have only one source, Herodotus. So many later historians have many theories of their own. "Herodotus is more like the world's first blogger than an objective historian, blending events, anecdotes, myths, hearsay into a great story." (Schwartz)
So Persians frontal attack on the phalanx. The Athenians take the attack and go on the offensive.
So the Greeks did not run at the arrow barrage.
The Persian light infantry doesn't have their usual cavalry support, so its sickle swords and wicker shields against a wall of bronze. They make no progress and retreat. Now the heavy infantry, the Immortals. They march into battle in complete silence. Miltiades changes tactics. He still has a disadvantage, his area wider than he has troops to cover, He weakens his center to move troops to the edges, a huge gamble. Then he advances out of the protected valley. He needs his phalanx to have room to maneuver, but not so far that the Persians can surround him.
The Immortals move in.
Next, "an apocalypse of violence."
Athenians are beaten back in the center. The flanks hold strong, But they counterattack, then the wings close in on the sides and slaughter the Persians.
(52:30) Persians cannot maneuver. Persians panic. Flee to the beach.
6,000 Persian dead; 200 Athenians dead, among them Callimachus.
Marathon: some say, first example of a "pincer movement," or a "double envelopment," but not true. Miltiades just used one force, so he does not completely envelop the enemy.
After some rest, they attack the retreating Persians, capture seven boats.
Herodotus's story of Greek who has his hands chopped off grabbing boats and then bites them hold them at the beach.
The Persians head for Athens, 62 miles by sea.
An Athenian runs 26 miles to Athens, yells Nike, and drops dead.
Miltiades does a forced night march back to Athens, which is in danger.
Datis enters Athens harbor with 600 ships, but turns around and sails back to Persia.
Athenians build the Parthenon. 192 figures, one for each Athenian slain at Marathon.
Darius is furious.
Coming up - Xerxes and Thermopylae where Leonidas recapitulates Miltiades.
Marathon defines what it is to be Western and Greek rather than Eastern and Persian.
|Serials - Dawn of the Apocalypse|
|[ sub-menu ] - home page at AHC - Wikipedia - [ top-menu ]|
|A BBC/TLC Co-Production © MMXV|
|... the first great civilization of Europe collapsed. Desperate and bewildered, the ancient Minoans resorted to sacrificing their own children. What could have brought them to this terrible end?"
The Eruption on Thera? What if it was twice as large as previously thought?
What were the socio-political consequences?
Some Major Volcanos Often Referenced
Theory: the Old Kingdom collapsed due to famine.
[14:50 ] More famine in Delta
Series - Engineering an Empire
"It originally ran for one full season of weekly episodes" -- 14 over 3 years
|[ sub-menu ] - Wikipedia page - [ top-menu ]|
History Television Network Productions
© 2006 A&E Television Networks.
|Narrator: Michael Carroll
Host : Peter Weller, Syracuse University
"hosted by Peter Weller, famous for his acting role as RoboCop
but also a lecturer at Syracuse University,
where he completed his Master's in Roman and Renaissance Art."
notes put into the main chronology.
1300 - 1100 - Mycenaeans lay foundation of Greek civilization
1100 - 800 - Dark Ages
800 - 500 BC - Rise of the 100 City-States ruled by Tyrants
480 - Athens discards tyrany, invents democracy
431 - Sparta begins its war against Athenian Empire
Philip II changes warfare with engineering
Philip II lets his conquered peoples carry on.
Hellenism is the assimilation of conquered cities to Greek culture. The first international culture of commerce and scholarship.
Ptolemy I makes great contributions to it.
Theater of Epidaurus is the best preserved.
Hero of Alexandria - first century AD
Eratosthenes got the circumference of the earth within 1%.
notes put into the main chronology.
|Serials - Lost Worlds|
Lost Worlds - Ramses' Egyptian Empire
Season 1, Episode 8
Produced by Atlantic Productions for HISTORY
© 2006 A&E Television Networks, LLC.
|Ramesses II will make his mark by building.|
Every pharaoh had to make his mark at Karnak, to show his love for Amon-Ra.
To build the hypostyle hall at Karnak, they did not use cranes to lift the stones; they raised the ground itself. Mud brick ramps used to bring up a level of blocks, then more dirt brought up, the floor heightened, and another layer is put down.
Stone pounders and copper chisels, flints for scoring.
The slope of the ramp was 7 degrees. To get to the top it had to be two football fields long, over which the rocks were moved.
Notches in the stones for pieces of wood to hold two stones together.
They had six colors: red, yellow, green blue, white, black.
The temples were not open to the public. They were homes for the Gods, where the Pharaoh went to make offerings to them, which act made him powerful.
In the painted scenes, the gods are inside looking out, and the pharaoh is coming in from the outside.
Silsila quarries for sandstone.
When the Nile flooded, the blocks could be brought right up to the temple.
(Kathlyn) Every day, the kings, as chief priest, had to go into the temple sanctuary in order to
WTF? THIS MAKES NO SENSE. THE GOD IS A BABY?
[ HOW CLOSE WAS JUDAISM TO THIS - WITH ITS INNER SANCTUM?]
(32:30) Opet Festival, marking the Nile flood.
Temple at Luxor
Simple stone age pounders for precision work.
(42:00) Mortuary temple - the Ramasseum - 70 foot tall stature, now in ruins
Battle of Kadesh at the Orontes River - his images made the truth, not what happened.
Abu Simbel - to make himself a god - cut from living rock. To intimidate the Nubians, where all the gold came from.
Sun hits the inner sanctuary on two days year. Where Ramesses sits with three other gods.
(52:15) KV-5 in the Valley of the Kings, largest tomb complex, 125 chambers Earthquakes and floods for 3200 years have erased all the decorations.
To make the sarcophagus, use rods of wood spun by ropes to dig out holes in the stone. POWER TOOLS!
|Serials - Sex in the Ancient World|
Sex in the Ancient World : Egyptian Erotica
Season 1, Episode 2
copyright by A&E Television Networks
|"Egypt is the untold story of the ancient world."|
Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy is the largest collection in the world outside Cairo. Papyrus 55001 is The Turin Erotic Papyrus - 12 men and women in sexual positions.
Unlike Greece and Rome, historians have covered up how the Egyptians thought about sex, that you had to be a sexual being,
Mutilated statue of Min, god of fertility, at the British Museum. The penis has been removed.
For a wall etching of him, the penis was covered up with the exhibit title, "Temple Scene of Usertesen I dancing before Min."
Possibly the oldest sexual graffito in the world at a temple for Queen Hatshepsut. It's in a cave. The site is blocked to keep visitors out. Made by a craftsman of the tomb possibly, Queen Hatshepsut in bent over and a man is taking her from behind, maybe by Senenmut, her steward and lover. She's wearing the Nemes headdress, a sign of royalty,
The artist was showing his distaste for a female king, which went against the laws of Mart.
It's similar to one of the 12 positions in the Turin papyrus.
In contrast to Greece and Rome, Egyptian sexual imagery is much more coded. Beginning of new life starts with birth, so the afterlife involves sex.
Lotus flower is symbol of resurrection.
Sexuality, music, and drunkenness all go together.
On clothes chest, Tutankhamun sits on a chair, shooting a bow and arrow. His wife sits below him, at his knees, holding an arrow, ready for him to shoot. The word, seti, meaning shooting, also means ejaculate.
Hunting was a common metaphor for sex in the ancient world.
"Traveling through the marshes" is an Egyptian euphemism for having sex.
Images in the temple hidden from public, only for the priest.
One hieroglyphic is the phallus, dripping semen.
Gods performed sexual acts to create the world. While they are discreet in representing human sex, they can be quite pornographic with the gods.
Auto-fellatio of earth god Geb shows how self-sustaining and fertile is the earth.
All the men in the Turin papyrus are greatly endowed as is Geb.
Temples of Abydos. Chapel of Tar Socar. Mummiform Osiris with Isis as a bird on his erect phallus. The phallus has been chipped out.
Bes is the god of fertility. Saqqara, the city of the dead. Bes chambers decorated with images of Bes and naked ladies. Perhaps for people who needed help in conceiving, Rites have to be performed at childbirth. Bes is a bit of a comic character.
Tattoos in ancient Egypt were for the most erotic parts of the female body. One image shows a tattoo of Bes. Another has a belt of dots, a sign of sexuality on the buttocks of a female statuette. She had no feet so once she's placed in the tomb, she can't run away and take her fertility with her.
tattoos on the belly of a woman giving birth.
Hathor was goddess of physical and spiritual love.
Goddesses dancing with a sistra for music.
Deir el medina - a village of commoners - above the Valley of the Kings. Turin papyrus came from here. "Calm now is the desire of my skin," says a woman, bent over, taken from behind by a man, on an ostracon of a worker in the village.
Another ostraca shows a man having sex with a female, facing her, and she has her legs wrapped around his shoulders. It is "beautifully drawn."
Love poetry men and women wrote to each other.
Favorite male fantasy - young woman rising naked and wet from the river Nile.
Turin: sex on a chariot, her hair pulled by the old man. Hair was very erotic. Most Egyptians shared their heads because of lice and were bald. Wore elaborate wigs.
One text says, Put your hair on and lets go to bed.
Lotus flowers over the head mean the women are opiated.
One girl looks in a mirror as she puts on lipstick, and she sits on an amphora, turned upside down so that its point is entering her, and a man sits at her feet, and she says, "You give me nothing, so I have to rely on this."
Was this an ancient brothel?
Who was the Turn papyrus made for? Was it pornographic?
|Serials - Planet Egypt|
|[ sub-menu ] - [ top-menu ]|
| [H2 HD, 48 minutes]
Produced by Gruppe 5 Filmproduktion, Cologne
© 2011 ZDF and A&E Television Networks, LLC..
|Narrator: Mark Rossman|
|Why is there a question?
Ancestors of the Egyptians
Geography determined Egypt's boundaries
So is there a verdict on the Palette - history or metaphor?
|Foreigners were envious of the wealth of Egypt.
Thutmose III would be Egypt's greatest general.
|The Temple of Amun-Ra had attained great wealth and power.
|Layout - west to east (???)
|Serials - Clash of the Gods.|
|[sub-menu] - [ Wikipedia ] - [ top-menu ]|
Produced by KPI, a unit of Lightworks Producing Group for History
© 2009 A&E Television Networks, LLC.
|Experts at Universities
|Narrator: Stan Bernard|
700 BC - Hesiod, Theogony
Rhea has a plan.
Zeus assembles his army to dethrone Cronus.
Now, Zeus is a god who fears for his sons.
Hera assembles an army to dethrone Zeus.
Zeus and the Flood
One more challenger - Jesus Christ.
| From Wikipedia:
|"This is the truth behind the myth of Hercules."|
"So goes the myth. But what is the link to reality?"
Hercules comes of age - never knowing happiness.
Only the Oracle of Delphi can help him absolve his guilt.
Labors 1-6: challenges of Nature - Rid Greece of all its monsters.
Hercules was a model for the ideal man. Did he actually exist?
Labors 7-9: beyond Greece to confront foreign enemies:
Labors 10-12: to the edge of the earth, into an abyss of death.
Labor 10: Capture the cattle of the Geryon.
Labor 11: Apples of the Hesperides - Christian parallels
Labor 12: Capture Cerberus, the guardian of the underworld.
Resurrection of Hercules - Christian parallel [55:15]
| The Twelve Labors of Hercules:
|5 commercial breaks of 3:30 each = 17:30 out of 60 minutes|
(1) The Olympians revolt against the Titans and Cronus
(2) The Olympian males divide up the world
(3) Hades is the Christian three rolled into one:
(4) Hades takes a bride.
(5) Habitants of Hades
(6) There is an in-between class - the restless dead
(7) "So goes the myth. But could it be based on reality" [27:00]
(8) Hades in worship.
(9) No one can outwit death.
(10) But that does not stop people from trying.
(11) "This is the myth, but what is the connection to reality?"
(12) The ultimate conflict is in the Book of Revelation.
King Minos' sin led to archetypal conflict of Reason vs. Barbarism
The Minotaur so infuriated Minos that he weaponized the beast.
"But is it more than just a myth?"
Later, Athens gave Minos an excuse for barbarism.
"So goes the myth, but what is the connection to reality?"
Meanwhile, 50 miles from Athens, Theseus is born
Knossos, the capital of Crete, is full of barbaric superstition
Theseus arrives for his entombment in the Labyrinth
"So goes the myth, but what is the link to reality?"
Theseus kills the Minotaur and escapes with his comrades.
This is the defining moment of Greek mythology : Reason over Barbarism.
|HOW DID THESEUS GET IN THERE WITH A SWORD?
HIS FIRST MEAL IN NINE YEARS, AND THE MINOTAUR TAKES A NAP?
|Discover the Meaning behind one of the greatest stories ever told - the Hunt for the Head of Medusa|
(1) A Gorgon ("terrible") was a monster inspired by a dead body.
(2) Athena, the goddess of War, was the patron of Athens.
(3) Medusa was a priestess of Athena
(4) Athena turns Medusa into a Gorgon
(5) Paradoxically, this makes her valuable.
(6) Meanwhile, King Acrisius, fearing a son, abandons Danaë - twice.
(7) The Father of Perseus is Zeus,
(8) Meanwhile, Another king desires Danaë.
(9) Perseus must have weapons to conquer Medusa.
(10) "This is the myth, but how does it connect to reality?"
(11) The Stygian nymphs give him
(12) Perseus kills Medusa.
(13) Perseus kills the King of Serifos and saves his mother.
(14) Presents the head to Athena, who originally created the monster.
(15) Perseus founded the bronze-age civilization of Mycenae.
|"This is the real story of Odysseus"|
Character of Odysseus ("man of pain") in the Odyssey.
Lotus Eaters of North Africa [drug-theorie]
Archaeological EvidenceAeolus, king of the winds, on the island Aeolia
Harbor of the giant cannibals
The Nekyia, the Journey to Hades
The Sirens [drug-theorie].
The cattle of Helios.
Home to Ithaca.
|Thesis: "Beowulf is a story based on fact."|
Beowulf's first adversary - Grendel.
[9:30] "This is the myth. But what is the link to reality?"
And finally Beowulf wins.
With victory, a grim reality.
Also verified by archaeology
Beowulf's second adversary - Grendel's grieving mother.
... is a Metaphor for changing times
Beowulf takes time out to fight a human adversary
Beowulf's third adversary - the Dragon of Earnaness.
"So goes the myth, but what is the connection to reality?"
The death of Beowulf
|Serials - The Roman Invasion of Britain.|
|[ sub-menu ] - Wikipedia page - Smithsonian page. - [ top-menu ]|
© Green Bay Media Ltd. 2009.
Into from Wikipedia on Roman Britain.
43 AD - Claudius [Emperor #4 - 41-54, born in Gaul ], seen as disabled, an idiot, would show everyone by succeeding where Caesar had failed, in the conquest of Britain, to which he sends several legions under Aulus Plautius, a man related to Claudius by marriage.
Rome is founded on aggressive campaigning, conquest, and triumph.
Advantages of taking England
They spoke variations of a Celtic language, a predecessor of Welsh.
Din Lligwy in north Wales - well-preserved iron-age settlement.
The Roman soldiers were afraid of the natives in this Ferox Provincia, where the English Channel was full of monsters, but a former slave, Narcissus, gives them a pep talk.
The Roman landing would benefit from a twist of fate.
The Catuvellauni, heaving heard of the rebellion amongst the Romans, cancelled their plans for an attack, and so the Roman landed on the beach with no hindrance.
The native chiefs were the brothers,
They may have landed at Richborough, which would have been on the beach then, though now it is miles from the sea. There is massive Roman fort there.
Scouting parties found no natives, who were planning guerilla warfare.
There were no bridges
The Batavians swam across the Medway River, fully armored, where they attacked the chariot horses and the chariots. Then the Romans found a place upriver where they could ford it. They engaged the natives and probably killed Togodumnus, "who disappears from the historical record at this time."
The survivors fled to Camulodunum
Aulus has the town surrounded, but he holds back from taking it. He sends word to Rome, and Claudius himself travels to Britain just for this conquest. He makes an entrance mounted on an elephant.
The capture of Camulodunum was the high point of Claudius's career. His troops call him, "Imperator."
Three legions set off to conquer the rest of England. A future emperor, Vespasian (#9), led a legion into the West. Another went north, the third in the middle to Shropshire.
Vespasian fought the Durotriges tribe in Dorset. His bloodiest battle with them was at the Maiden Castle. Mass slaughter. Many tribal leaders had no stomach for this, and eleven tribes surrendered, like the Iceni in East Anglia, whose leader, Prasutagus, got what the thought was a good deal - nominal independence.
Aulus promises autonomy to the British tribes, but the Romans renege on this (not explained).
47 AD - Publius Ostorius Scapula (died 52) relieves Plautus. Vast parts of southern Britain under Roman control. Scapula made a stupid mistake. He demanded that all tribes submit to Rome and surrender their weapons. In Iron Age cultures, your sword was your manhood.
The Iceni revolted. They lost. Victory for Scapula. .
Now he aims for Wales. The tribes that troubled him:
He said in public that he wanted to wipe the Silures off the face of the earth. They were allied with Caratacus, who becomes the de facto leader of the tribes
Lots of fighting ensues. This is the Roman's Vietnam War. Caratacus, at last, makes a tactical withdrawal. He took a stand against the legion following them. He made his last stand at the hill of Caer Caradoc (Caer Caradog).
"Pushed into action by his troops, Scapula showed what a capable general he was." He used the "testudo formation" of soldiers with shields held high to storm the British citadel even with men dropping rocks on them.
But the Brigantes betray Caratacus and hand him over to the Romans. He's taken to Rome with his family for a public execution.
Bettany takes a book from a shelf and thumbs through the pages.
Bettany is shown reading Tacitus in Latin - Book XII, Chapter XXXVII.
Tacitus tells of the speech he made which saved his life by painting Claudius as merciful. Caratacus got a villa and a pension and was never heard from again.
Unlike what happened to
More fighting in Britain, especially with the Silures, who attack a Roman unit setting up a fort, and massacre them. This is rare. Scapula died, "a man worn out with care."
Aulus Didius Gallus was the next governor of Britannia (52-57). He has to fight the Brigantes, they who gave up Caratacus to Rome. The Romans, from top to bottom, were incredibly arrogant toward the "Brittunculi" -- "pathetic, little Brits."
60 AD - East Anglia, land of the Iceni, revolts a second time, and a woman comes to the fore, Boadicea (Boudica),
They razed three British cities.
We know more now about why Rome was not defeated.
(1:20) The guerilla war against the Romans that began in 43 lasted for 17 years [ until 60 AD ].
The Romans were acting like carpetbaggers, moving in as conquerors, abusing and humiliating.
AD 60 - Among the Iceni in East Anglia - Prasutagus dies, who had first made peace with Rome. In order to alleviate Roman oppression, he changed his will, leaving only half of his estate to his daughters, and giving the other half to Nero, but the Romans decide to shock and humiliate the Brits once again. They have his widow, Boudica, publicly flogged, and his virgin daughters raped. Then the soldiers embark on an orgy of rape and looting. These people won't even think about getting revenge.
At the town's museum today can be found decapitated skulls of the natives.
The Trinovantes met with the Iceni and drew up a list of towns to attack.
Camulodunum (modern Colchester) is a colonia, a settlement of retired legionary veterans, 3,000 - 4,000 of them. It was the capital for the Trinovantes until the Romans took it in 43 AD. Now the sacrilegious Temple to Claudius, the god, sat in the center of the city. But it was completely undefended. No walls or ditch.
60 - Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, the new governor of Provincia Brittanica, was away at the time. His spies told him that the HQ of the Druids was on the isle of Mona (Anglesey Island) in Wales. The Druids were warrior-priests whom the Romans despised. He took troops there to fight them.
The Boudican Revolt.
Meanwhile, Boudica razed three cities to the ground:
There is evidence of her burning down Camulodunum. Daub is a mixture of mud, clay, straw, manure, used for building. In a cross-section of the ground there, there is a layer of gravel, representing Roman roads, and above that a layer of daub that has been burned into pottery. Normally,it just returned to mud. This is evidence of great heat. This cross-section can be viewed through a pane of glass in the basement of the George Hotel.
The Brits did to the Romans, at those towns, what the Romans had been doing to them. It was "an orgy of psycho-sexual destruction."
Paulinus heads to the Midlands, to meet up with the bulk of his army. He has the 14th Legion and part of the 20th. About 6,000 men, far less than the Boudican hordes. He sets up on rising ground with a woods behind him, so he cannot be ambushed.
Boudica arrives, but her men are a horde of complacent drunks.
He lured Boudica into a trap -- a pitched battle.
The Romans stand firm, not flinching, while the screaming hordes attack. They launch a volley of javelins. They advance, and it was carnage.
The Brits put their wagon train to the rear, so that their women and kids could watch their success in battle.
Boudica dies shortly after this disaster, "either through illness or because she took poison.".
That was the end of the Revolt.
The Romans show no mercy to the Brits. They wage terror in East Anglia. Systematic destruction, including Norfolk and Suffolk. Kate says,
But with all this vengeance, the Romans lose sight of their purpose - to exploit the natural resources of Britain.
77 - Gnaeus Julius Agricola become governor.
He believed that Pax Romana was best for everyone. He sought friendly relations with the Brits and to romanize them. The Brits began wearing togas, having their children learn Roman culture, and speaking Latin.
They draw the town leaders into the system, and they have helpers in keeping control.
After 150 years of Romanization, there are cives, townsmen, the Brits having taken a liking to urban life. Massive building. After a thousand years of agriculture, suddenly the Britons have a new way to live. Local government in the Roman Empire is based upon towns.
(45:00) Bath is a two thousand year old example of that Roman luxury. The whole complex, with its temple, was dedicated to a composite god Sulis Minerva.
Viroconium (village in Shropshire) is a part of a network of civitates across Britain. Amenities of the cities
75 - Silurres lay down their arms.
Caerwent in south Wales, north of the Bristol Channel. There are Roman ruins there today, identified by a stone now in the local church: CIVIT SILURUM. The Silures created the town, and they were the first to attack the Romans back in the day.
ca. 100 - all tribes of southern Britain conquered.
In Scotland, the Picts (painted ones) refuse to surrender for the next 350 years.
Eventually, the Romans agree and pull back their armies.
130 - Hadrian's wall finished.
It is 73 miles long, has gates and gate houses that serve for customs and taxation.
There was an Antonine wall later, but it was abandoned.
Was it all wonderful for all the people?(57:20 end)
|For many Britons, life was brutish and short. Why did Roman rule last so long, and what finally brought it down?|
Provincia Britannia - the 10% and the 90%.
(01:18) 300 years of Roman rule has been seen as a success.
The Britons had glass and pottery. In the Middle Ages, it was only a trickle. You have to get to 1600 before the quantity of manufactured goods exceeds what was made in Roman times
Eynesford in Kent - Lullingstone Roman Villa, found in 1939 . Dozens of rooms, central heat, frescoes on the floor, the life of the 10%.
"Let them hate, provided that they fear," was the Roman attitude to the 90%.
Lavender, apples, turnips, and peas - Roman imports, along with leprosy and the stress of the oppressed.
Why did Rome have a disproportionate number of troops stationed in Britain? In the 2nd century, 10% of the entire Roman army was in Britain, which was 4% of the Empire. If you are an Emperor, you fear rivals, especially if they have troops ready at hand. Britain is at least across the water.
Caerleon in south Wales - Isca - remains of a military base with an amphitheater. Barrack blocks for 320 men are left of the barracks for 5,000 men.
The army kept track of who the people were, where they went, what they owed, where they went, how big their families were. Constant stream of revenue back to Rome. (YIKES!) The Romans turned taxation into a fine art.
Aulus Plautius. first governor, spend his time in a guerilla war, but he managed to search for exploitable resources.
(17:45) Pumsaint village, in the heart of Carmarthenshire - the Dolaucothi gold mines, last used commercially in the 1930s. They are in a dense forest. The Roman built aqueducts to bring 2.5 million gallons of water a day up a hill to sluice it down the hill, washing away the soil, so they could get to the gold-bearing quartz. Or they would build bonfires against the rocks to crack them. Or do both. Those same techniques were used up to Victorian times, when at last explosives came in.
BUT THEN the site was run with slave labor, making a network of deep tunnels in the hills. They worked in darkness, or with fire billowing smoke, fearing whipping if they stopped for a moment, and the arsenopyrites got into their systems - arsenic.
Slaves = "living tools." [Aristotle]
Each man, ten carloads of shale, get one carload of quartz, giving a pebble of gold.
Downside of City Life.
Britons found city life stressful. Despite the magnificent buildings and plumbing, towns were not as successful in Britain as in other provinces. After 300, some start to shrink.
In the British Museum are the "curse tablets." Strips of lead engraved with pleas to the gods in Latin, but composed by the Britons.
Against Trettia Maria: "I curse her mind, her memory, her life, her liver and her lungs, all mixed up together."
These tablets tell us three things:
Pressure on Rome.
3rd century [???] - barbarian invasions split empire in east and west, each with its own ruler.
Must start removing troops from Britain to put out fires elsewhere.
(32:45) Roman Power unravels in Britain.
286 - Mausaeus Carausius commanded the Roman fleet patrolling the English Channel. He was there to fight pirates, and he earned the admiration of fellow soldiers. He declares himself Emperor of northern Gaul and all of Britannia.
He minted silver coins, rare in Rome, with messages, like Expectate Veni, Come, the Awaited One and The Savior of Britain.
Allectus, his finance minister, assassinated him and seized power for himself.
Constantius Chlorus, "ruler of the Western Empire," Emperor #54, killed Allectus. Things were almost back to normal, except that Britain was divided into four parts in order to better keep governors in control and prevent one from attaining the power of a Carausius.
[So divide and conquer is for the empire itself, not just its subject peoples.]
Then Chlorus made an attempt to conquer Scotland. He failed [ wiki -- a successful punitive campaign against the Picts beyond the Antonine Wall ] and returned to Eburacum (York), where he died. His troops declared that his son would be the new emperor - Constantine the Great (#57).
As Constantine the Great, he made Christianity the Roman religion, but this changed the status of Emperors forever, They could not longer be god-men. They were just weak men.
[ 367 - The Great Conspiracy - at Wikipedia ]
All at once, 3 marauding parties invaded Britain:
Valentinian [ Emperor Valentinian I ] sent one of his best men, Count Theodosius, a general, to find out whey they had a coordinated attack, and in three months, Theodosius found the traitors at Hadrian's wall [ who had revolted and let the Picts come in. ].
"This would be the last time that the heat of imperial power would ever be felt in Britannia." [Bettany]
c. 410 - The Romans withdraw from Britain.
(48:30) Britain, once with too many soldiers, now had too few.
407 - A would-be Emperor, Constantine III, withdrew what was left of the Roman garrison and set off for the Continent,
Barbarian hordes were circling the country.
408 - a mini-revolt, Constantine's officials were expelled. No Britain was defending itself. Romans decide to let it go.
Britain devolved back into tribal barbarism. With no taxes collected, no need for an economy, no need for money, no need for markets, no need for towns.
Disagreement on the precise moment when Roman Britain came to and end.
But the most romantic finale came in
493 - Ambrosius Aurelianus defeated a large Saxon army at Mt. Badon, wherever that may be. He's the source for King Arthur.(0:57:20)
|Serials - The Universe: Ancient Mysteries Solved|
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The Universe: Ancient Mysteries Solved
Season 8, Episode 3
Produced by Flight 33 Productions, LLC
for H2™ Network
© 2014 A&E Television Networks, LLC.
|| Tall El-Hammam
| Bab edh-dhra
|"The Bible tells of events where we are now realizing can be matched up with historical events that we can go back and verify." - Goodman|
Asteroids are of two kinds:
Sodom and Gomorrah location - Biblical description
Sodom and Gomorrah - modern archaeology
Sin of Sodom
Archaeology finds evidence of catastrophe at Tall el-Hammam. (18:07)
Extreme heat that produced Trinitite
What we know of an "airburst event"
Recent Airbursts over Russia (31:20)
BUT - Two other candidates proposed for Sodom and Gomorrah ...
are south of the Dead Sea (48:10)
Does Zoar on the map rule out the northern cities around Tell el-Hammam?
Let's relive in the event in all its glory (55:35)
So "the science of the universe gives us a new way of looking at an ancient story."
Eve's fruit was not an apple until 500 AD, when Latin translation gave us a pun.
Ponce de Leon after the Fountain of Youth from descriptions by Prester John. Sought it in the Gulf of Mexico, plausible because Noah's Flood changed the geography of the world from the original time of Eden.
The origin of the term “lullaby” comes from the words “Lilith abi” which means “Lilith, go away.” In some versions of Jewish folklore Lilith was considered a succubus, a female demon, who seduced men in their sleep. When she bore children from her nighttime sexual encounters, she killed them. -- examiner.com.
1875 - George Smith (1840–1876), translating Gilgamesh, finds the Snake. In Sumeria, the Snake-Goddess, Tiamat, created the world in seven days as a Garden.
Our north star is Polaris, but for Egyptians, it was Thuban. The northern shaft of the Great Pyramid pointed right at it.
In Rome, December 25 was "the feast of the unvanquished sun" for Sol Invictus. Chosen as birth date in 4th c. [ disputed by some ]