Apocalypse: WWI: 1 - Fury
The First Cousins
The Triple Entente
- Nicholas II of Russia,
- Alexandra Feodorovna, his wife,
- King George V - looks like a brother of Nicholas
- Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
- Albert I of Belgium (?)
- The British Empire
- George V (1910-1936)
- "piercing blue eyes,"
- Herbert H. Asquith, Prime Minister (1908-1918)
- "We are on the brink of the Apocalypse"
- Sir Edward Grey, Foreign Secretary
- “The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime,”
- Lord Horatio Kitchener (d 1916), War Secretary
- Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty (1911-1915)
- David Lloyd-George (Welsh, English being his second language),
- Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915)
- Prime Minister (1916-1922)
- Secretary of State for War (1916)
- Minister of Munitions (1915-1916)
- French Third Republic
- The Russian Empire - Russia, Finland, Poland
- Tsar Nicholas II.
- Alexandra Feodorovna, the Tsaritsa.
- Rasputin, influences the Tsaritsa, worried about the hemophilia
- (To Tzar) "With war will come the end of Russia and yourselves"
|Some Background / Foreground
||The First Reich was the Holy Roman Empire.
|6 Aug 1806
||Empire dissolved after Napoleon wins Battle of Austerlitz.
||German unification under Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck .
||German Empire, Deutsches Kaiserreich, German Reich or Realm, Second Reich, or Imperial Germany
||Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates
||German Reich, Deutsches Reich
This is the so-called Weimar Republic, using the same name from the pre-1918 Imperial Period.
This is the cute part.
This is not the Third Reich
||Nazi Germany, this is the Third Reich.
The Triple Alliance (1882 Otto von Bismarck, founder - 1914, end)
The Central Powers, the Quadruple Alliance - who fight the war
- Kingdom of Bulgaria - joins alliance 14 October 1915
- Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
- 2 August 1914 - joins alliance secretly
- 29 October 1914 - joins alliance publicly
- Germans "outbid" the Entente for the favor of Turkey
- Latecomers in 1918 - Finland, Azerbaijan, Lithuania
The Balkans - powers not yet empires
- King Albert I (1919-1934)
- "A country that defends itself cannot perish."
- It was a continuation of the Belle Epoque of the 1900s
- It was fifty years since the last war.
- Stefan Zweig describes all the new libraries and museums.
- "The Joyful Apocalypse"
- Between 1890 and 1914, Vienna was home to Sigmund Freud, Gustav Klimt, Gustav Mahler, Leon Trotsky, and Adolf Hitler.
- The Empires were trying to outdo each other.
- Germany wanted its day in the sun and stepped up ship-building
- Armaments industry was in full force
- With the workers and their kids doing long hours for low pay
- with Jaures, the French labor leader, opposing the armaments.
|| second time's a charm - Princep in Sarajevo, Bosnia
||A priceless German opportunity to take Serbia
||The July Crisis.
||July Ultimatum: A-H to Serbia, which is rejected
||Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
||Jean Jaures, pro-peace, murdered.
||Germany declares war on Russia - been troop moving
||General Mobilization Order in France.
||German ultimatum to Belgium to allow transit into France
||Germany declares war on France.
||Germany invades Belgium.
||United Kingdom declares war against Germany.
||British soldiers arrive in France.
|| In Alsace, French Army tries to attack Mulhouse.
||Battle of Frontiers - France and UK defeated
|| Battle of the Ardennes
||27,000 French killed - deadliest day in French military.
||Germans defeat British: Battle of Mons (Belgium)
||La Grande Retraite (Great Retirement) - to the Marne
||French Cavalry barely saves the British from Germans.
<16:15> <30:00> <44:00>
Now it's all reality versus illusion
- Germans must bring in huge Krupp cannons to fire one-ton shells into Belgium.
- Belgians destroy their train tracks by crashing locomotives into each other.
- A-H, expecting to take Serbia in a week, is stopped in its tracks.
- So Britain has time to mobilize world's largest navy, to German chagrin.
- Great Britain has no draft, depends upon volunteers.
- French Plan XVII: Take back Alsace-Lorraine, march on Berlin
And it's a horrific reality.
- <55:00> After success in Mulhouse, France is driven out;
- German reprisals on civilians.
- Germans fear civilian snipers.
- Fear of reprisals send hundreds of thousands of civilians into flight.
- Horror stories about the Huns get going right away.
- Germans devastate Belgium - universities, libraries, etc.
- Wilhelm II fears a war of extermination.
- The Germans march on Paris.
- "Despite delays, the Schlieffen Plan is succeeding."
- The Germans are 30 miles from Paris.
- "Victory is near."
Nazis: Evolution of Evil
(AHC HD, 2014)
A World Media Rights Production for
Discovery Networks International.
© MMXIII World Media Rights Limited
© MMXIII Discovery Communications Europe Limited
[ sub-menu ] - [ web page at AHC ] -
[ top-menu ]
| Narrator: Terry MacDonald
See also "Adolf Hitler's Rise to Power"
|1 - "The [Three] Misfits Gather"
NOTE: "The term Sturmabteilung predates the Nazi Party founding in 1919."
From Reich to Reich
- German Empire (Deutsches Reich, 1871-1919)
- Adolf Hitler - Austrian adopts Munich as his home.
- Iron Cross, Class 2 and Class 1, and Wound Badge.
- burning eyes
- Germany loses war without France or Britain on German soil.
- German army undefeated.
- 11/11/1918 Armistice ends WW I.
- [November criminals (Novemberverbrecher)]
- This was a betrayal - Jews, communists - the stab in the back.
- " I was confined to bed, the idea came - I will make Germany great."
- [11:00] Back to Munich, "a traumatized misfit"
- where the Socialists were in a power, a Marxist running Munich
- 06/28/1919 - Treaty of Versailles - war reparations
- Weimar Republic (Deutsches Reich, 1919-1933)
Getting into Politics
- Karl Mayr sends Hitler to observe the beer halls.
- Karl Mayr has Hitler write anti-Semitic Gemlich letter (1919).
- Anton Drexler, Deutsche Arbeiterpartei - (DAP, 1919-1920)
- Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP, 1920-1945)
- [25:20] Hermann Goering - "lean and mean and handsome"
- From Red Baron's Flying Circus of Manfred von Richthofen.
- Goering, like Manfred, had the Blue Max, Prussia's highest.
- He is beaten up by a leftist gang after the war.
- All he can do - comedy stunt flying - humiliation.
- Hitler's plan is to seize power by force.
- 12/1920 - Völkischer Beobachter ("Völkisch Observer")
- Nazis very modern in symbols and newspaper layout
- the Sturmabteilung, Brownshirts, (not the Stormtroopers)
- 1923 - Goering is put in charge of the ill-disciplined SA.
- Summer 1923 - Heinrich Himmler, Member # 14,303.
- diarist and stamp collector, former chicken farmer
A Putsch is not a Revolution
- [39:50] The Three await the moment to seize power.
- Economic catastrophe for workers and middle-class.
- Default on war payments so French occupy the Ruhr
- Hitler heads the Bavarian Kampfbund ("Battle-league")
- General Erich Ludendorff, figurehead for the revolt
- SA will take key police and military buildings in city.
- Hitler arrives in a red Mercedes at the Burgerbraukeller.
- The Beer Hall Putsch is on (11/8 - 11/9 - 1923).
- Gustav von Kahr, two other Bavarian leaders, are there.
- SA men take up strategic points in the city.
- Ludendorff convinces the three leaders to join the coup.
- [54:35] Hitler leaves the hall to Ludendorff.
- Kahr voids his word, decides to suppress the Putsch.
- When Hitler gets back, he waits - passive - a critical error.
- Munich government declares Hitler guilty of high treason
- Hitler and Ludendorff lead a 2000-man march - 16 Nazis killed.
- Goering is seriously wounded and given morphine.
- Hitler and Himmler flee the scene of the battle.
More die on an anniversary of the Putsch
- 11/9/1939 - Georg Elser bombs the Putsch anniversary party
- A Communist, he shoots, kills eight, but misses Hitler
- No more anniversaries after that.
Hitler learned : People will not support fringe politics.
|2 - "Becoming Respectable"
"Now Hitler wants to be a respectable politician with a message tailored for the masses, fashioned by a new master of deception, defended by a new force that's branded to kill and sworn to do their Fuehrer's evil bidding."
Trial for High Treason (02/1924 - 04/1924)
- [ Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the NSDAP ]
- Accepts guilt, which is no guilt against the traitors of 1918
- it was a revolution against a revolution
- A dictator does not wait for the call; he wills it.
- Hitler becomes news around the world
- Sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg Prison, he serves 9 months
- with his own photographer, 3-course meals, visitors, parties
- Dictates Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess,
- getting the lebensraum from Karl Haushofer (1869-1946)
Famous now, but the Nazis flop at the ballot box.
- [16:25] Released during an economic boom
- Billions of dollars in American loans pay off war debts
- Germans are happy with the Weimar Republic
- Hitler is banned from public speaking
- Völkischer Beobachter has been banned by the State.
- Nazi membership drops by a half.
- Goering is addicted to morphine, straitjacket in a mental asylum.
- In elections of 12/1924, Nazis get 3% of the vote
- Mein Kampf (volume 1- 1925, volume 2 - 1926) flops - 10,000 copies.
Savior 1: Haushofer to the rescue.
- "Sooner or later, we will have the majority."
- [30:15] Hitler orders an image overhaul for the Party.
- Haushofer helps Hitler with his presentation:
- lederhosen rustic, technocrat in a lounge suit, uniformed for a rally.
- Has him drink herbal tea instead of strong beer
- Practice gesticulations in the mirror
Savior 2: Joseph Goebbels becomes the Fourth Misfit.
- 5 foot-four Goebbels had a club foot, which kept him out of the War.
- [He published a novel that failed:
- Michael: Ein deutsches Schicksal in Tagebuchblattern (1929)]
- A flatterer, he had "a schoolgirl crush" on Hitler,
- to whom he wrote a fan letter during the Landsberg stay.
- First meets him in the summer of 1925.
- [42:35] Goebbels becomes his propaganda minister.
- New brand: Nazi party for the people, not the extremists.
- 11/1926 - Gauleiter of Berlin to wean it away from Communists.
- 1927 - new Nazi newspaper, Der Angriff (The Attack)
- Also modernist posters, flyers, tracts, to publicize the party
- 1927 - speaking ban lifted
- Goebbels second only to Hitler in public speaking:
- sharp-tongued and sarcastic, not passionate and aggressive
- Goebbels, the intellectual, uses the SA as his bodyguard,
- thugs to beat up Communists and Jews in the streets.
- "How I love these lads. We are creating uproar all over Berlin."
- [ Also in 1927, Martin Bormann joins the Nazi Party and becomes part of Hitler's inner circle. ]
Hitler puts the final touches to his image.
- Hitler wanted a more elite unit, so the SS becomes his bodyguard.
- Trace Aryan ancestry back to the 18th century.
- Hugo Boss (1885–1948), Nazi Party member, designs the uniforms.
|The SS began in 1923 as a small, permanent guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, by then been reformed and renamed the "Schutz-Staffel" (protection squadron). Under Himmler's leadership (1929–45), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful units of the Third Reich
Still, the time was not right.
- [53:10] Hitler targets the rustics, where the Jews are not an issue.
- He wants to be respectable for business support.
- Nazi membership increased four-fold since 1925.
- Hitler warns that "Weimar is dancing on a volcano."
- If the Americans call in their loans, the economy will collapse.
- In May, 1928 elections: 2.6% of the vote.
- The Communists did four times better.
- Has the new image failed?
- 10/24/1929 - the Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression
- American banks calls in their loans.
- German unemployment - 3% to 26% in 8 weeks.
- Hitler looks like a prophet.
3 - "Seizing Power"
- Germany in economic meltdown;
- Brot, Arbeiten, Freiheit. - Unsere letzte Hoffnung: Hitler.
- Refuses to pay war compensation to the Allies.
- Promises "a new deal" for the German workers.
- Blames economic crisis on the Jews.
- Strategy works: win 6 1/2 million votes. 2nd largest party.
Prepare for the Next Election
- Increase profile of the Party
- Propaganda comes before Ideas
- Since 1927, annual rally in Nuremberg, torch processions at night.
- It becomes massive and mesmerizing with the torches at night.
- Make the people wait for the climactic appearance of Hitler
Head off an unexpected scandal
- [16:30] Geli Raubal (1908-1931, age 23) affair
- Jewish boyfriend the last straw
- rumors of Hitler a coprophiliac in photos with her
- news worldwide.
- claim she was playing with gun, accidentally killed herself.
- Never again photographed with a woman
- Hitler is married to the German nation.
- [29:15] postcards and coffee table books, just a regular bachelor guy
Stand for elections until he's Dictator
| 03/13/1932 - Hitler gets 11 millions votes for President
- He lost. Hitler is a handicap for his movement. For most Germans, his personal appearance is repellent. The epileptic behavior, the wild gesticulations. the foaming at the mouth, alternately shifty and staring eyes. But in less than a year he would be Chancellor. -- Third Reich: The Rise (2010) - FIRST DOC TO SAY WHAT SEEMS OBVIOUS!
- 07/1932 election - Nazis get 37% of the vote.
- 11/1932 election - Nazis biggest party in Reichstag.
- Hitler wins over the industrialists, the generals, the mittlestadt
- Franz von Papen hosts Hitler and Oskar von Hindenburg.
- 01/30/1933 - Paul von Hindenburg appoints him Chancellor.
- Hitler calls another election.
- 02/10/1933 - radio broadcast
- 02/27/1933 - Reichstag fire - Marinus van der Lubbe, Communist
- [ This overcomes repulsion? ]
- Hitler sends the SA and the SS to purge body politic of Communists.
- [ Hitler "burns down" all institutions of freedom - speech, press. ]
- 03/23/1933 - Nazis take 44% of the vote, and,
- with help of Catholic party, have majority to pass Enabling Act,
allowing the Nazi Party to enforce laws without the Reichstag.
- Hitler suspends the Constitution
- 03/23/1933 -" the last democratic election" until end of war.
- [Thank God! How many frigging elections does a country need?]
By now, there are many rivals to eliminate.
- 6/30/1934 - 07/02/1934 - Night of the Long Knives, the Röhm Putsch
- Tea Party at the Chancellery garden for his cabinet and their families
- SS masterminds the killing of all internal enemies at same time.
- "Almost pure Godfather 2"
- Gustav von Kahr, a saboteur of the Putsch, killed
- Kurt von Schleicher, former Chancellor, and wife, shot at door
- Willi Schmid, music critic, same name as an SA man
- Ernst Roehm - Hitler informed at the party and he nods.
- "Germany is now ruled by gangsters."
- 77 officially, 400 altogether, once the nearest and dearest
- 7/13/1934 - Hitler brags about what he has done in the Reichstag.
Final Steps to Dictatorship
- 07/14/1933 - non-Nazi political parties outlawed.
- 08/02/1934 - President Paul von Hindenburg dies.
- 08/02/1934 - Hitler abolishes Presidency; Hitler a dictator, the Fuehrer.
- 1934 - the SA massively outnumbers the German army.
|4 - "In Power"
4/1/1933 - First attempt on the Jews fails [4:00-7:00]
- Blame Jews for economic woes.
- Brownshirts lead a national day of boycott of Jewish shops.
- But it is called off after one day.
- This day does not have a name, like Kristallnacht?
- The German people are not interested in anti-Semitism.
- They still patronize the Jewish shops.
- American diplomat says, it was "unpopular with the working classes and the educated circles of the middle classes."
- Hitler will not mention the Jews again for four years.
|This program does not mention:
|"The Anti-Nazi Boycott of 1933 was
a boycott of
German products by foreign critics of the Nazi Party
in response to anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany following
the rise of Adolf Hitler, commencing with his appointment
as Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933.
Those in the US, the UK and other places worldwide who
opposed Hitler's policies developed the boycott and
its accompanying protests to encourage Nazi Germany
to end the regime's anti-Jewish practices."
Public works for employment:
- Autobahns, built by large numbers of workers,
- excite people with prospect of travel at will,
- Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF) replaces labor unions with worker and management committees,
- all unions outlawed
[15:05] Volksgemeinschaft ["people's community"]
- special people in a special nation;
- takes message of Nazism into everyday life, such as dinner;
- leagues for boys and girls who have fun while wearing uniforms
- leisure programs for workers, holidays for half-off the market rate,
- newlyweds receive copy of Mein Kampf.
- all to make Germans slowly come to view Jews as an under class
- Volkswagen, designed by Ferdinand Porsche (1875-1951)
Secretly preparing for war while proclaiming peace
- [27:05] dwarfs public spending and creates employment
- armed showdown with Russia inevitable ,
- lebensraum to the east where the Slavs live,
- plans kept secret by a man elected as "devoted to peace,"
- "restore German pride," not prepare for war,
- rearmament is an antidote to humiliation of Versailles,
- 03/1935 - conscription begins and swells the army,
- Goebbels agents eavesdrop on conversations to gauge feelings.
1935 - The Nuremberg Race Laws [ German Racial Policy ]
- [40:50] define Jew, anyone with 3 Jewish grandparents
- 1 or 2, then mischlinge, mongrels
- Creating scapegoat of the Jews is working now.
- ban marriage between Aryans and Jews
March 7, 1936 - Re-occupy the Rhineland - contra Versailles - goes well.
- Crisis of shortage of foreign currency impoverishes Germans
- But then economy picks up in 1937.
- Unemployment goes down to virtually nothing.
- Economics good, Hitler seems like a genius
- So now does Hitler have enough leeway to attack the Jews?
1937/1938 - Second attempt on the Jews
- [54:50] 1937 - Hitler mentions Jews first time in four years.
- 250,000 Jews leave Germany
- "Jews are cause of their own misfortune."
- Secret police and Gestapo unleashed on Jews
- 11/7/1938 - Ernst vom Rath, diplomat,
- shot five times by a Jewish teenager, Herschel Grynszpan,
- dying two days later (11/9/1938)
- is the perfect excuse for
- 9-10 November, 1938 - Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, or Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht , or Novemberpogrome.
- "Hitler has won the hearts and minds of the German people."
|BUT - Hitler did not approve of it. The entire world condemned it. This was the brainchild of Goebbels alone. -- Nazis: Ultimate Evil (2014)
|5 - "Preparing for War"
12/1937 - Hitler purges generals against quick expansionism.
- Werner von Blomberg - 25 year-old wife a former prostitute
- Werner von Fritsch - homosexual - abhorrent to Nazis
- Hitler makes himself supreme commander of German army
- Biggest problem - he declared himself publicly a man of peace.
Early military conquests void first plot against Hitler. [18:30]
- 03/1938 - The Anschluss - taking Austria - cheering crowds
- Sudentenland - agents provoke unrest, get news coverage
- 9/1938 - military officers go to a Cathedral to be relieved of their vows to support Hitler. They want to arrest him when he invades Sudentenland.
- <30:00> 09/1938 - Chamberlain agrees to vote on Sudentenland
- Hitler rages - rules changed; wants Sudentenland without a vote.
- Chamberlain says:
- "Hitler's threatened invasion of the Sudentenland is merely a quarrel in a faraway country between people of whom we know nothing."
- Conspirators check their weapons, ready to take down Hitler.
- <45:00> Munich: Chamberlain agrees if it's his last territorial demand.
- 30 Sept 1938: Treaty of Munich - Britain and Fance accept Hitler's taking of the Sudentenland.
- The plot against Hitler collapses. - none of them are found out.
- 03/15/1939: Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia, again without firing a shot.
- No response from the Allies.
- To the Germans, Hitler is amazing.
[ German Agreement with the Soviet Union
23 Aug 1939: Molotov-Rippentrop Pact
|the treaty included a secret protocol that divided territories of Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland into German and Soviet "spheres of influence", anticipating potential "territorial and political rearrangements" of these countries.
Then the Allies react [55:30]
- 09/01/1939: German warship in Danzig opens fire on Poland.
- German troops pour across the border into Poland.
- 09/03/1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany.
- Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland
- "war at its most brutal; no one has ever seen this before."
- 09/17/1939 - Stalin invades Poland from his side.
- [ BRITAIN AND FRANCE DON'T DECLEARE WAR ON USSR. ]
- Winter 1939: Blitzkrieg against western Europe.
- France, Belgium, Holland, Norway
- 22 June 1940 - Hitler-France armistice signed in Compiegne train.
- 06/28/1940: Paris - "I am the greatest strategic genius of all time."
- 06/1940: Italy allies with Germany.
- 09/1940: Japan allies with Germany.
Germans think all of Hitler's wars will be over soon. He is so good. The devastation is just beginning.
- Blitzkrieg launched on western Europe.
- winter 1940-1941 - bombing of England
- 10 July - 31 Oct 1940 - The Battle of Britain
|6- "Hitler's Biggest Blunder"
05/10/1941 - Rudolf Hess parachutes into Scotland.
- He's losing his position as Hitler's greatest confidante.
- If he can make peace with Britain, he will restore himself.
- Nazi leadership - seething mass of conspiracy.
- Hitler goes berserk.
- Goebbels spin: Hess is a madman.
The invasion of Russia - not his biggest blunder? [8:38]
- 6/22/1941 - invades Russia - rapid progress promotes delusion
- Hitler thinks he has won the war.
- Russians fight back, Germans slow down
- [16:00] Hitler won't listen to the doubts of his generals.
- Russian winter sets in; temperatures -32 F.
You couldn't urinate in the open air."
- German army beats a tactical retreat.
- The six week war has now taken five months.
- Goebbels spin: Lies about the loss, presents Hitler as a genius.
Now comes Hitler's greatest blunder.
- 12/7/1941 - Japan enters the war
- Hitler sees America as a mixture of inferior peoples.
- Americans don't have the stomach for a fight.
- 12/11/1941 - He declares war on the USA - his biggest blunder.
"No one will be the same after Stalingrad."
- [ July 17, 1942 OR 23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943 ]
- [29:10] Spring 1942 - warm weather - Germans besiege Stalingrad.
- 11/1942 - Russians encircle Germans at Stalingrad;
- 250,000 Germans have no supplies.
- Hitler holed up at wolf's lair (Wolfsschanze) in eastern Poland.
- He won't let the generals do a tactical retreat.
- Hitler says that the Germans will fight to the last man.
- Goering's air drop to the Germans is a farce.
- Out of 800 tons daily, he can deliver 100 tons.
- Goering, morphine addict, most concerned with his art looting.
- 02/1943 - Commander defies Hitler and surrenders.
- 100,000 soldiers and 24 generals taken prisoner.
- [43:40] Highest point of Goebbels - he spins this as a tragedy for the Germans to overcome with grit and heroism and endurance.
- We want "total war - shortest war." [WHAT DOES THIS MEAN???]
America crosses the Atlantic.
- 06/1943 - North Africa
- 07/1943 - Italy
- The folly of Hitler's declaration of war on America is evident.
- [55:50] Allies bomb German cities, day and night.
- 8/1943 - Industrial Hamburg is devastated in a fire storm.
- 8/20/1943 - Himmler becomes Minister of the Interior - Hitler can not rely on the good will of the German people and he needs a dictator over them.
Hitler in denial, withdrawn to the wolf's lair
- Eva Braun is with him.
- Starts to tremble, maybe Parkinson's.
- Dr Theodor Morell (1886-1948) attends to Hitler
- testoviron (testosterone)
- tempidorm - a barbiturate suppository - (medicatione.com)
- quadro-nox, a sedative
- optalidon - pain killer and analgesic
- obstinol - for chronic constipation
Other sources mention
- Schering Testoviron,
- animal testicular extracts (Orchicithin, Orchikrin, Prostacrinum).
- intravenous cocaine
"He has always depended on success hiding the shocking reality of his regime. But now he's losing the war. The German people will inevitably start waking up to the truth and some, at last, will fight back.".
|7 - "The Final Solution"
Hitler's aware that Germans offended by horrific policies.
- The "Action T4" 1939 euthanasia campaign for disabled kept secret.
- T4 began in 1939 - gave phony causes of death like measles.
- Requires Goebbels to persuade Germans to exterminate Jews.
- The Eternal Jew (1940), his film, is a box-office flop.
- Hitler will not put his name to any genocidal document.
- The Yellow Star - meant to alienate Germans from the Jews.
- Propaganda - they are responsible for their own destruction.
- 11/30/1941: 1000 Jewish war heroes sent to Latvia by mistake and shot.
- 10/1943 - recording exists of a Himmler talk on the Final Solution.
- "This is a page of glory, never mentioned and never to be mentioned."
- Sure sign that what they've done is unacceptable to German people.
- Had to keep that secret for the Germans would be appalled.
Experiments on Places
- Not in Germany, where people can see.
- People learn of T4 and worry about "our wounded soldiers."
- Catholic Bishop von Galen denounced T4.
- So T4 was halted in Germany.
- Eastern Europe is the best place.
The Chosen Deception
- Reinhard Heydrich: German Jews are being resettled at Theresienstadt.
- [ Hitler called him, the man with an iron heart.]
- [ He heads up the Gestapo for Night and Fog. ]
- [ He experiments in tortures for interrogation. ]
- Newsreels show it a safe place with gardens and an orchestra.
- Adolf Eichmann in charge of deporting German Jews secretly.
- Regular trains with tickets, food, and money lulls the victims
- Fake railway stations with painted wooden clock, hands at six.
- Then shower, shaved, stripped, run into chambers - in 90 minutes.
Experiments on method:
- "sardine packing" - shooting at mass graves. dug by the condemned
- Shooting takes a toll on the morale of the German soldiers.
- lethal injection, used by T4.
- Showers for carbon monoxide, also at T4.
- Cattle cars to Poland, then the showers.
- kill 50 Jews at a time by carbon monoxide in a truck.
- It's all just a matter of logistics for bureaucrats to solve.
- Belzec - static combustion engine pumps exhaust fumes in a chamber.
- ovens to burn the bodies
- [ A humane method prevents psychological harm to the killers.
- gas vans precursors to gas chambers.-- Nazis: Ultimate Evil (2014) ]
- Goering in charge of Jewish affairs.
- Himmler's SS will carry it out.
Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942, assassinated), Himmler's assistant.
- Heydrich is a champion fencer, fighter pilot, skilled violinist.
- Heydrich's Einsatzgruppen kill thousands of Polish Jews.
- Heydrich gets Goering's signature on a plan for Final Solution.
- He had the largest state funeral of the Nazi era.
- 1/20/1942 - Wannsee Conference.
- Adolf Eichmann kept the minutes of the conference.
- Heydrich at Wannsee informs that killing all Jews is Hitler's desire.
- Christian Wirth (1885-1944) Operation Reinhard for Polish Jews.
- Named after Reinhard after his assassination.
Commercial Partnership [54:10]
- By 12/1942 - one million dead.
- IG Farben leases Jewish workers from the SS for its factories.
- SS makes lots of money.
- The Rosenstrasse Protest (2/27/1943)
- Aryan women revolted when their Jewish husbands were arrested.
- Nazis allowed them to go back to the wives.
- They reprieved 35 Jews who had already been sent to Auschwitz.
DESPITE ALL THIS EVIDENCE, A PC CONCLUSION :
"And so the German people become complicit in one of the worst crimes in history."
|8 - "Plots and Delusions"
Hitler loses middle-management
- Hitler's hold on the people is their belief that he is a genius.
- after Stalingrad (02/1943), it looks hopeless
- Destruction rains down on the homeland.
- Hitler is isolated and cracking up, living on intravenous cocaine.
- 04/20/1944 - Goebbels stages 55th birthday party celebrations
- His spies tell him that the people still want to stand with Hitler.
- Hitler has given the army impossible orders:
- no retreat ever,
- attack without troops or equipment.
- The colonels, the middle ranks, are outraged.
Solution: make the Nazi State overthrow itself.
- Two colonels want to kill Hitler with a replacement government on hand.
- Additionally, they both recognize the sick nature of the regime.
- Hitler has great security and changes his itinerary often.
- [15:20] "The solution they come up with is astonishing."
- Operation Valkyrie sparks Berlin reserve for a slave-labor uprising.
- Stauffenberg is in charge of Operation Valkyrie .
- He adds the SS as a potential threat to be neutralized.
- They add the death of the Fuehrer as a trigger.
- von Tresckow's wife neatly types up the modified orders.
- Kill Hitler, initiate Valkyrie, then Germany has new leaders.
The bomb plot (20 July Plot)
- 6/6/1944 - D-Day
- In the East, the Soviets launch an offensive.
- Panzer Divisions await Hitler's orders to attack.
- Hitler has ordered not to be awakened before noon.
- The Allies secure their beachheads.
- 6/7/1944 - Stauffenberg in the Alps to brief Hitler on Valkyrie.
- Aborted attempts, trying to get Goering and Himmler with Hitler.
- [30:25] 07/20/1944: Stauffenberg sets the bomb for Hitler alone.
- Stauffenberg rushes back to Berlin to launch the coup.
- Hitler survives the bomb in the wolf's lair; four die.
- von Stauffenberg and 3 are executed; Tresckow commits suicide
Himmler makes lemonade out of lemons
- Himmler arrests 7,000 men, women, and children.
- A public show trial will let the people know Hitler is still in charge
- Roland Freisler (1893-1945), the screaming judge, condemns 5,000.
- There is no doubt what happens to those who betray the Reich.
- [43:15] Hitler learns that Erwin Rommel had known of the plot.
- 10/14/1944 - Rommel takes poison to keep his family alive.
- Goebbels urges again "Totaler Krieg – Kürzester Krieg." [Kurzester]
Hitler's last brainstorm.[53:45]
- 09/1944 - Hitler has found the Allied weakness: the port of Antwerp.
- He calls in two generals to plan the attack
- He will use all of his last strategic reserve.
- Tanks will need to capture fuel in order to reach Antwerp.
- 12/16/1944 - His Panzers make a 50 mile run before the Allies react.
- Bad weather had protected them from Allied air attack.
- But the Allies stop the advance in the Ardennes.
- The war is over.
|9 - "End Game"
"This is the story of how the Nazi Regime keeps lying to the very end, as it collapses into plots, power struggles, madness, and one final, great betrayal of the German people."
Stooped, aged, shaking, drugged, in Berlin Fuehrerbunker.
Some say Hitler had a bunker obsession.
Deluded about super weapons
- Me 262 - first jet fighter - 600 mph - no impact on war.
- V-2, first ballistic missile, first human object to enter space.
- as Germans retreat, rocket launch sites are captured
03/19/1945 - The Nero Decree.
- "Demolitions on Reich Territory Decree "
- destroy German infrastructure to keep it from the Allies
- named after Nero starting the Great Fire of Rome in 64.
- If Germany loses the war, the people deserve nothing.
- The German people have let their Fuehrer down.
04/20 - Celebrates 56th birthday during a Russian shelling of Berlin
- He has cake
- He plays with toy soldiers.
- Goebbels has him greet Hitler Youth, pat their cheeks.
- Goering leaves the party to head to the Bavarian Alps.
- Himmler leaves the party, pretending he is still loyal.
He plans his last stand, led by General Steiner, formerly of the SS.
04/22 - Soviets encircle Berlin. Hitler angry at his generals.
- He finally tells them all to go home.
- Generals think he has abdicated, and is no longer Fuehrer.
- Still bullet holes in buildings from the war.
04/25 - Russian and American forces split the Reich in half.
04/29 - Last Will and Testament dictated to secretary Traudl Junge.
- telegram from Goering to confirm his succession
- news of Himmler's negotiations of surrender
- news that Red troops 2 blocks from the Reich Chancellery.
04/29 - Marries Eva Braun in the bunker.
04/29 - Kisses her in front of his acolytes, a first.
04/30 - cyanide capsule (age 33) and Walther PPK
05/01 - A last lie to the people - Hitler fell fighting Bolshevism.
|"Who Won World War II?" by Eric Margolis at LRC.
Goebbels - loyal to the end
Goering - the great survivor
Maintain illusion that Nazi monsters are noble heroes
- with the movie, Kolberg (1945) - directed by Veit Harlan,
- Detailing Kolberg's resistance to Napoleon in 1807.
- Troops called from duty to perform as extras
- Opened in a theater, 01/30/1945, later others, then vanished
- Almost no one sees it.
04/30 - He becomes Chancellor, rewarded by Hitler for his loyalty.
As Chancellor, tries to deal with Marshall Zhukov, who rejects him
05/01 - Death
- has his dentist anesthetize his six children with morphine.
- They cannot live in a world without Nazism.
- He and Magda put cyanide in the mouths of the kids,
- then kill themselves.
- SS soldiers fire into the bodies as a coup de grâce.
- 04/20- leaves party and goes to Berchtesgaden in the Alps
- 04/23 - hears of Hitler's breakdown and "abdication."
- So, by laws of succession, he can take over.
- Telegram to Hitler, let me take over.
- Martin Bormann gives it to Hitler as evidence of Goering's treachery.
- Bormann sees a chance to take over the Reich.
- Goering surrenders to the USA, believing he can survive.
- He expected to be treated as a head of state.
- Eisenhower will not see him.
- second-highest-ranking Nazi official tried at Nuremberg
- death by potassium cyanide the night before scheduled hanging
Himmler - let's make a deal.
01/1945 - gas chambers at Auschwitz blown-up.
evacuates inmates from Poland to Germany for a bargaining chip.
02/03/1945- Himmler is open for business.
Talks with Jean-Marie Musy of the Swiss Confederation
- Jews for 20 million Swiss francs paid in the US
- Thinks he might be the future leader of Germany.
- 1700 Jews get to Switzerland for promise of $250,000.
- The deal called off when news leaks out.
04/20 - leaves the birthday party
04/21 - Talk with Count Folke Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross
- position himself as the reasonable Nazi
- wants a negotiated settlement with himself as chief negotiator
- for release of 31,000 prisoners for money, ultimately not paid
- with Fuehrer's abdication, tells Bernadotte he is the leader
- as head of SS and police, he can control Germany
- wants to surrender to Britain and USA, but not to Russia.
- His is dismissed from all posts in the German government.
Spotted trying to disappear among the prisoners of war.
05/23 - Death
- The Brits find an empty brass cyanide case
- They initiate a full body search; the doctor goes for the mouth
- Himmler bites him, steps back, takes capsule out of his tooth,
- bites down on the capsule, dies in agony on the floor
- despite attempts to make him vomit out the poison.
- Want to take over the Reich after Goering's treachery.
- 04/29 - made head of Nazi Party
- 05/02 - killed running from the Chancellery.
- 04/29 - Hitler named Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor.
- He is appointed Reich President.
- 05/02 - Berlin surrenders to the Soviets
- 05/07 - Germany finally surrenders - Doenitz?
- highest-ranking Nazi official tried at Nuremberg
- Imprisoned for 10 years in Spandau Prison [West Berlin].
- Freed in 1956, he lived until 1980.
|10 - "Aftermath"
Denazification of the leaders is a must
- abolish the Nazi Party
- Identify its criminal members
- Bring them to justice
[16:05] Try them at Nuremberg
- where the Nazi Race Laws were promulgated
- where there still stands a building big enough
- Enlarge for 350 press and 400 civilians
- Meet out death and prison sentences
[28:00] Denazification of the people is a must
- Concentrate on the government workers
- Make them fill out questionnaires
- Processing 500,000 will take 2 years
- And there are 7 1/2 million more
EXCEPT - THE COLD WAR HAS BEGUN
We need Rocket Scientists
- Wernher von Braun (1912-1977) was head rocket scientist
- He used slave labor at his factories
- 765 scientists in total come to America [Wikipedia: 1,500]
- No denazification for them
- Operation Paperclip (1949-1990)
- Truman had forbad Nazi recruitment
- American intelligence re-writes their biographies
[42:55] We need intelligence officers who know Russia
- Gestapo agents have infiltrated Russian intelligence cells
- Gestapo and SS have data files on the Red Army.
- Klaus Barbie (1913-1991, age 77)
- sadistic killer
- Butcher of Lyons in the Holocaust
- 14,000 deaths, including 44 Jewish orphans
- Send him down the Ratline to South America
- Give him new name, Klaus Altman,
- Give him new passport
- Becomes wealthy working for Bolivian dictators.
- 32 years before he is ever seen again.
[56:35] EXCEPT - some can't forget the original crimes