Cable-Shows on the Moderns - World Wars

 





Cable-Show - Apocalypse: WWI
[ sub-menu ] - [ AHC webpage ] - [ top-menu ]

Series consists of archival film footage of WW I colorized
modified for wide-screen format
accompanied by sound effects and narration
with no talking heads.

NOTE: The acute  ( ´ ) and the grave accents ( ` ) are diacritics used in French.
BUT: They make searching for a name impossible, using the English keyboard.

AHC HD, 2014
A France Canada Co-production
© CC&C Clarke-Costelle & Cie - Ideacom International, Inc.
All Rights Reserved 2013
# Title Date Subjects
1 Fury. 07/28/2014 October 1914 - Germans near Paris
2 Fear. 08/04/2014 Australia and New Zealand enter the war
3 Hell. 08/11/2014 warfare becomes industrial and chemical
4 Rage. 08/18/2014 June 1917 - soldiers near breaking
5 Deliverance. 08/25/2014 July 1918 - one millions Americans in Europe
Narrator: François Arnaud



Apocalypse: WWI: 1 - Fury [ next ]

The First Cousins

  • Nicholas II of Russia,
  • Alexandra Feodorovna, his wife,
  • King George V - looks like a brother of Nicholas
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
  • Albert I of Belgium (?)
The Triple Entente
  • The British Empire
    • George V (1910-1936)
    • "piercing blue eyes,"
    • Herbert H. Asquith, Prime Minister (1908-1918)
    • "We are on the brink of the Apocalypse"
    • Sir Edward Grey, Foreign Secretary
    • “The lamps are going out all over Europe; we shall not see them lit again in our lifetime,” 
    • Lord Horatio Kitchener (d 1916), War Secretary
    • Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty (1911-1915)
    • David Lloyd-George (Welsh, English being his second language),
      • Chancellor of the Exchequer (1908-1915)
      • Prime Minister (1916-1922)
      • Secretary of State for War (1916)
      • Minister of Munitions (1915-1916)
  • French Third Republic
  • The Russian Empire - Russia, Finland, Poland
    • Tsar Nicholas II.
    • Alexandra Feodorovna, the Tsaritsa.
    • Rasputin, influences the Tsaritsa, worried about the hemophilia
    • (To Tzar) "With war will come the end of Russia and yourselves"
Some Background / Foreground
on Reich-speak.
962-1806 The First Reich was the Holy Roman Empire.
6 Aug 1806 Empire dissolved after Napoleon wins Battle of Austerlitz.
1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War.
1871 German unification under Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck .
1871-1918 German Empire, Deutsches Kaiserreich, German Reich or Realm, Second Reich, or Imperial Germany
Nov 1918 Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates
1919-1933 German Reich, Deutsches Reich

This is the so-called Weimar Republic, using the same name from the pre-1918 Imperial Period.

This is the cute part.

This is not the Third Reich

1933-1945 Nazi Germany, this is the Third Reich.

The Triple Alliance (1882 Otto von Bismarck, founder - 1914, end)

The Central Powers, the Quadruple Alliance - who fight the war

  • Germany,
  • Austria-Hungary,
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria - joins alliance 14 October 1915
  • Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
    • 2 August 1914 - joins alliance secretly
    • 29 October 1914 - joins alliance publicly
    • Germans "outbid" the Entente for the favor of Turkey
  • Latecomers in 1918 - Finland, Azerbaijan, Lithuania

The Balkans - powers not yet empires

Neutral Countries

  • Belgium
    • King Albert I (1919-1934)
    • "A country that defends itself cannot perish."

Good conditions

  • It was a continuation of the Belle Epoque of the 1900s
  • It was fifty years since the last war.
  • Stefan Zweig describes all the new libraries and museums.
  • "The Joyful Apocalypse"
  • Between 1890 and 1914, Vienna was home to Sigmund Freud, Gustav Klimt, Gustav Mahler, Leon Trotsky, and Adolf Hitler.

Bad conditions

  • The Empires were trying to outdo each other.
  • Germany wanted its day in the sun and stepped up ship-building
  • Armaments industry was in full force
  • With the workers and their kids doing long hours for low pay
  • with Jaures, the French labor leader, opposing the armaments.

1914

28 Jun second time's a charm - Princep in Sarajevo, Bosnia
  A priceless German opportunity to take Serbia
  The July Crisis.
23 July July Ultimatum: A-H to Serbia, which is rejected
28 July Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
31 July Jean Jaures, pro-peace, murdered.
   
1 Aug Germany declares war on Russia - been troop moving
2 Aug General Mobilization Order in France.
  German ultimatum to Belgium to allow transit into France
  Belgium refuses.
3 Aug Germany declares war on France.
4 Aug Germany invades Belgium. 
  United Kingdom declares war against Germany.
7 Aug British soldiers arrive in France.
19 Aug In Alsace, French Army tries to attack Mulhouse.
21 Aug Battle of Frontiers - France and UK defeated
  Battle of the Ardennes 
22 Aug 27,000 French killed - deadliest day in French military.
23 Aug Germans defeat British: Battle of Mons (Belgium)
24 Aug La Grande Retraite (Great Retirement) - to the Marne
25 Aug French Cavalry barely saves the British from Germans.

<16:15> <30:00> <44:00>

Now it's all reality versus illusion

  • Germans must bring in huge Krupp cannons to fire one-ton shells into Belgium.
  • Belgians destroy their train tracks by crashing locomotives into each other.
  • A-H, expecting to take Serbia in a week, is stopped in its tracks.
  • So Britain has time to mobilize world's largest navy, to German chagrin.
  • Great Britain has no draft, depends upon volunteers.
  • French Plan XVII: Take back Alsace-Lorraine, march on Berlin

When Germany declared war in 1914, France began the execution of Plan XVII with five initiatives, known as the Battle of the Frontiers:

  1. Battle of Mulhouse - (7–10 August 1914)
  2. Battle of Lorraine - (14–25 August 1914)
  3. Battle of the Ardennes - (21–23 August 1914)
  4. Battle of Charleroi - (21–23 August 1914) - German victory
  5. Battle of Mons - (23–24 August 1914) - German victory

And it's a horrific reality.

  • <55:00> After success in Mulhouse, France is driven out;
  • German reprisals on civilians.
  • Germans fear civilian snipers.
  • Fear of reprisals send hundreds of thousands of civilians into flight.
  • Horror stories about the Huns get going right away.
  • Germans devastate Belgium - universities, libraries, etc.
  • Wilhelm II fears a war of extermination.
  • The Germans march on Paris.
  • "Despite delays, the Schlieffen Plan is succeeding."
  • The Germans are 30 miles from Paris.
  • "Victory is near."



Apocalypse: WWI: 2 - Fear [ next ]

English Channel -- The Somme

English Channel -- The Seine ---------- Paris ------- The Marne

Russian Invasion of East Prussia stopped at Tannenberg

26-30 Aug 1914 Battle of Tannenberg.
30 Aug suicide of commander Alexander Samsonov.
"Tsar trusted me. How face him after this disaster?"
  • Russian army divides into two, too far apart to rescue one another
  • Erich Ludendorff launches Zeppelin dirigibles to observe enemy
  • near complete destruction of Russian Second Army
  • Paul von Hindenburg gets the credit,
  • Erich Ludendorff is overlooked.
  • In Russia, Grand Duke Nicholas (1856-1929) pooh-poohs the disaster.
  • "The road to Berlin is through Austria-Hungary."
  • Russia takes Galicia and Lemburg from A-H.

German advance into France stopped at the Marne, 40 miles short of Paris.

August 1914 the hottest summer of the century.
5-12 Sept First Battle of the Marne - Allied victory
13 Sept End of the Battle of the Frontier
28 Sept - 10 Oct Siege of Antwerp - German victory
c. 17 Sept-19 Oct Race to the Sea - stalemate.
13-28 Sept First Battle of the Aisne - indecisive
19 Oct - 22 Nov First Battle of Ypres.- indecisive
  • Seven German armies invade France
  • Germans commanded by Helmuth von Molke the Younger
  • They break off their attack on Paris to swerve down to the Marne.
  • Six French field armies and the BEF stop the Germans
  • with their victory in the Miracle of the Marne.
  • Sir John French (1852-1925) commands the BEF.
  • Germans abandon push on Paris
  • Germans retreat north-west in the Race to the Sea.

War of movement becomes a war of position

  • The Miracle of the Marne yields --
  • four years of trench warfare on the Western Front.
  • Oct 1914 - Germans start digging, forcing civilians to work,
  • determined to hold on to their conquest
  • Belgians open dykes, flood the region, waterlog the soil
  • "termite colonies," "freezing crypts"
  • British dig in, determined to hold the front in Flanders
  • BUT French officers do not condone defensive digging in
  • Germans have 435 miles of trenches, North Sea to Switzerland
Winter 1914 Joffre offensives halted by machine guns

Voices raised for peace are not heard

  • "This war is the suicide of Europe." - Pope Benedict XV - 1 Nov 1914
  • Moments of spontaneous fraternization on the front
  • men who risked being shot for treason
  • Military men dominate politics and politicians
  • April 1915 - Women's Congregation for Peace in the Hague demands end to hostilities.
  • Public opinion turns against the war.
  • But the war just goes on.

War of the Colonies

  • French, British, and Belgians attack German colonies in Africa
  • Togo, Cameroon, Tanganyika, Rwanda, Namibia, Zanzibar
  • Japanese take Tsingtao (Qingdao), German enclave in China
  • Commercial interests established the Germania Brewery in 1903,
  • which later became the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery,
  • Now the second largest brewery in China.

In the Middle-East, the call for the Holy War Fails

23 Nov 1914 Jerusalem muezzins declare holy war on Entente
22 Dec 1914 Pasha attacks in Caucasus near Sarikamish.
  • This is to relieve the Central Powers in their fight against Russia
  • The Russians hold the summits of the Caucasus mountains
  • "The Caucasus is a fortress. Only a madman would attempt to scale it," said a Russian general in a previous war against the Turks. [Google search fails]
  • 70,000 Turkish die.
  • No Muslims arise against Russia for the Holy War.
  • Enver Pasha needs a scapegoat, hence the Armenian Genocide.(1915)

And Mustafa Kemal defeats Churchill's master plan of 1915.

  • “Are there not other alternatives than sending our armies to chew barbed wire in Flanders?” asks Churchill.
  • Although the political head of the Royal Navy, the ambitious Churchill also fancied himself a military strategist.
  • The young minister proposed a bold stroke to win the war.  [history.com]
    • Joint French and British operation
    • transit the Dardanelles,
    • take Constantinople,
    • put Turkey out of the war,
    • prevent Bulgaria from entering the war
19 Feb attack on Gallipoli begins - long-range bombardment
18 Mar In the Dardanelles, Turks take out 10 of 18 ships
25 April
The Gallipoli Campaign. begins [ends 9 Jan 1916]
This is to seize the enemy batteries
  Month long delay allowed Turks to send reinforcements
May Churchill demoted to an obscure cabinet post.
Nov Churchill resigns from the government
Nov Churchill joins Royal Scots Fusiliers in frontline in France.
  will return as munitions minister in 1917.

Italy is bribed with the return of Trento and Trieste

23 May 1915 Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary
August 1916 Italy declares war on Germany

Something new - an Industrial War

Jan 1915 Zeppelin airship bombing of London begins
Apr-May 1915 Second Battle of Ypres

the first mass use by Germany of poison gas on the Western Front
7 May 1915 Lusitania, a British ship carrying munitions and people
4 Aug 1915 Germans enter Warsaw in Poland

Philippe Pétain [Petain], a rising star, is given command of the Second Army. "He acquired a reputation as one of the more successful commanders on the Western Front."

23 Sept -
6 Nov 1915
Second Battle of Champagne
  German victory

Changes of personnel in Germany

  • Paul von Hindenburg, Chief of General Staff from 1916
  • replaced Erich von Falkenhayn on 19 August 1916
  • Erich Ludendorff, his deputy



Apocalypse: WWI: 3 - Hell [ next ]
Hell ... is artillery.
  • shrapnel - steel ball shells explode in mid-air
  • men disfigured for life - "broken faces"
  • doctors treat wounds never seen before
  • new helmet designs - British can be made out of one sheet of steel
  • Germans have the stahlhelm
  • artillery shells with chlorine or mustard gas
  • despite being banned in 1899
  • Allied gas masks were ridiculous (urine-soaked cloth over mouth)
  • until they discovered the German gummimaske with activated charcoal

Mechanizations

  • trench excavating machine makes three parallel line for Allies
    • front line
    • support line
    • reserve line
  • grenade launching rifles
  • Brits have a giant sling shot
  • medieval crossbow
  • the plum pudding - as dangerous to the Brits as to the enemy

Deplorable living conditions before age of antibiotics

  • rats scamper across men in trenches like cats
  • fleas, scabies, lice
  • And, through all of this, this class system is upheld everywhere.

The Army of the Orient

Oct 1915 - Allies create a melting pot in Greece.

Big Plans

  • 6 Dec 1915 - Allies meet at Chantilly to decide strategy for Somme Offensive.
  • Feb 1916 - Germans beat them to the punch by their vain attack on Verdun.
21 Feb-20 Dec 1916 Battle of Verdun - French victory
  Philippe Petain commands 2nd Army
  Petain is promoted, to command 52 divisions
May 1916 Robert Nivelle succeeds Petain as commander:
"Ils ne passeront pas!" ("They shall not pass"!) 
  • Germans find unexpected resistance.
  • Flamethrowers make their debut.
  • When the French get around to their offensive, it is too little too late.
1 July - 18 Nov 1916 The Somme Offensive - The Battle of the Somme
  Inconclusive
  one of the largest battles of WW I
one of the highest casualties in British history
  "The battle has been controversial since 1916 over its necessity, significance and effect."
  • Each side tried to dig underneath enemy trenches and blow them up
  • Hence the need for men who listen to the underground.
  • 1 July 1916 - Brits blow up a trench with 24 tons, but the Germans were gone
  • Sept 1916- The Brits introduce the tank, but their surprise does not last long.
  • Douglas Haig, the commander, was "The Butcher of the Somme"
  • LATER: End of 1916, Nivelle was promoted over Petain to replace Joseph Joffre as French Commander-in-Chief.

1917 - Revolution?

A French battle finally drives the men to rebellion.

16 April – 9 May, 24–26 Oct 1917 Second Battle of the Aisne.
aka Bataille du Chemin des Dames
German victory
  • 15 June 1917 - court-martial for the mutineers from 2nd Aisne.
  • "We need to end the war not through victory but through revolution."
  • Why have our generals learned nothing about suicidal assaults?"
  • But this is not so unusual. It has already happened in Russia.



Apocalypse: WWI: 4 - Rage [ next ]

Against the Tsar in 1917

  • 1.5 million Russian soldiers had been killed
  • People think Alexandra is a German spy.
  • Rasputin murdered for his influence over her.
  • In Kiev, there is a factory making artificial limbs
  • Russian army mutinies
February Revolution: 8-12 March 1917 [ O.S. 23 – 27 Feb ]

Nicholas writes George V, asking for asylum -- rejected.
The Czarina has her daughters' heads shaved:
Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia

Peace proposals, at last, but they are imbecilic.

  • Franz Joseph had died in 1916, living long enough to see the horror.
  • Charles I (Karl) succeeded him (Nov 1916 - Nov 1918)
  • Charles hates war and futile assaults, wants peace.
  • March 1917 - Charles floats peace proposal, but no concessions to Italy
  • Hearing this, Wilhelm II makes his own peace proposal
    • Everyone accepts the status quo
    • Germany keeps Belgium, north France, Alsace-Lorraine
  • From now on, true leader of Germany is General Ludendorff.

Now let's have some more strategic calculations from our generals.

  • If the unterseeboote (plural) can sink 500,000 tons of ships a month
  • England will collapse in 6 months.
  • and America would not be ready for another year,
  • [ which would be February 1918.].
  • 01 Feb 1917 - Ludendorff sends 100 subs into the North Atlantic
  • to begin "unrestricted submarine warfare."
  • Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg: "Germany is lost."
  • 19 March 1917 - Three American merchant ships sunk.
  • Woodrow Wilson has his excuse to violate his campaign pledges.
  • 6 April 1917 - America declares war on Germany.

America arrives in four months, unfit for war - so Ludendorff is right.

  • 13 June 1917 - General Pershing and the AEF land in France.
  • "Sammies" and "Froggies"
  • Pershing insists on a separate American army
  • "No one puts new wine in old goat skins."
  • But he assigns the black American soldiers to the Amalgamated Units.
  • The French troops give them a royal welcome.
  • Jazz takes the Continent by storm.
  • <44:00> But French and Brits must upgrade American fighting skills.

George V has a plan to stop the U-boats.

31 July 1917 -
10 Nov 1917
First Battle of Passchendaele aka 3rd Battle of Ypres
  Haig vs. Ludendorff
  4 million British shells, tanks - stopped by rainfall
Sept 1917 "Military leaders persist in their folly."
    • destroy their bases at the ports of Ostend and Bruges.
    • but don't attack from the sea.
    • come up from the south and the village of Passchendaele.
  • Gen. Haig is chosen to lead the attack.
  • He will capture Passchendaele in a few hours
    •  "His epic but costly offensives at the Somme (1916) and Passchendaele (1917) have become nearly synonymous with the carnage and futility of First World War battles."
  • Lloyd-George opposes the idea, wanting to wait for the Americans:
    • "Passchendaele will forever rank among the biggest, bloodiest, and most useless battles in history."

An older poem is relevant now

  • John McCrae, Canadian field surgeon, "In Flanders Field" (a rondeau)
  • written 3 May, 1915 about the Second Battle of Ypres.
  •  "Its references to the red poppies that grew over the graves of fallen soldiers resulted in the remembrance poppy becoming one of the world's most recognized memorial symbols for soldiers who have died in conflict."
    • "We are the dead."



Apocalypse: WWI: 5 - Deliverance [ next-first ]

The Italians are a problem for both sides of the war.

24 Oct - 12 Nov 1917 Battle of Caporetto.
  Overwhelming Central Powers victory
  effective use of storm troopers and the infiltration tactics developed in part by Oskar von Hutier. The use of poison gas by the Germans played a key role in the collapse of the Italian Second Army
  • Hauling cannon up 10,000 foot high mountains
  • under the command of the draconian Luigi Cadorna.
  • With trenches in the ice and barbed wire, as if they were down below.
  • Among the Austrians arriving on 24 October is Erwin Rommel.
    • "The deeper we penetrate enemy positions, the less they expect it and the easier the battle."
  • Germany and A-H take Caporetto, and head toward Venice.
  • Italians say, surrendering, "Our enemy is Cadorna, not the Austrians."
  • Cadorna ("My army has gone on strike") is stripped of his command.
  • A Farewell to Arms (1922) by Hemingway, Italian ambulance volunteer
  • Allies worry that Italy may withdraw from the war.
  • 15 Nov 1917: Reinforcements to Italy to stop advance toward Venice.
  • Allies do stop the Austrians.
  • Fearful of A-H revolt, Wilhelm II and Carl I discuss Italy at the front.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm maintains a major delusion:
    • "After the war, we will conclude a major treaty with France, and then with all of Europe. That done, I will lead the real war against England."
  • Kaiser believes they must achieve victory before Americans are operational.

1917 - First step - Germany must get Russia out of the war.

Ludendorff: "Lenin will overthrow the Russian patriots, and then I will strangle him and all his friends."

16 April 1917: Lenin at Petrograd's Finland Station after the train across Europe.

A sealed train  travels internationally under customs or immigration seal, without its contents officially entering the nations traversed between the beginning and end of the journey.

His April Theses, Bolshevik plans written on journey from Switzerland

Lenin in 1905: "Terror is an instrument of social hygiene."

7-8 Nov 1917
[ O.S., 25 Oct ]
October Revolution.
 
15 Dec 1917 Germany and Russia agree to an armistice

"By the end of 1917, an Allied victory in Europe was far from certain." - alphahistory.

1918: Germans begin offensives along the entire western front.
  • <17:15> 2 million new troops have been freed up to move to the west.
  • Ludendorff: "We must strike before the Americans
    can throw their forces into the scale."
3 Mar 1918 Brest-Litovsk Treaty signed after 3 months of talks.
  • 21 March - Ludendorff's new tactic - offensives along entire western front.
21 Mar - 18 July 1918 Spring Offensive, Ludendorff Offensive
  German tactical victory
German operational/strategic failure

  • First, shelling to prepare the attack,
  • Then, imitating Rommel in Caporetto, shock troops infiltrate enemy lines.
  • War of Movement resumes.
  • 24 March 1918 - Germans 75 miles from Paris.
  • Gothas, twin engine planes, first strategic bombers, replace Zeppelins.
  • They bomb Paris, but the artillery does the main damage.
  • The Paris cannon, Big Bertha [Bertha Krupp], sends shells that 75 miles.
  • Dire: French, British, Belgians, unite under command of Marshal Petain.
  • Clemenceau, the tiger, considers Petain too cautious.
  • Petain: "I am waiting for the tanks, and the Americans."

So, in March 1918, the Americans are not ready. Ludendorff was right.

  • 14 April 1918: Ferdinand Foch to be supreme commander of armies
  • General Weygand is his second in command.
  • Pershing refuses Foch: troops not operational until 1919.
  • Pershing wants war of movement, not trench warfare for Americans.
  • General Billy Mitchell prepares to bomb Germany.
  • Stories of the aces, Eddie Rickenbacker, the Red Baron
  • <29:00> Germans logistics can not keep up with troops.
  • 23 Apr 1918: Harry Truman at Saint-Mihiel.
  • 26 June 1918: Bois Belleau, storied Marine battle.

Spanish Flu - worst epidemic since Black Death of 14th c.

The 1918 flu pandemic (Jan 1918 – Dec 1920) - a deadly influenza pandemic infected 500 million people across the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and killed 50 to 100 million — three to five percent of the world's population—making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history
17 July 1918 - Czar and family killed at Ipatiev House.

Germany's last stand.

  • Ludendorff orders sick men back to the front.
  • He sends his last divisions, 600,000 troops, into the wheat fields.
  • This is the Friedensturm, the Offensive for Peace.
15 July – 6 Aug 1918 Second Battle of the Marne.
  Start of the collapse of the German army.
  Decisive Allied victory
  • Lt. Col. George Patton makes an appearance
  • <40:00> 8 Aug 1918 - Allied tanks overrun the enemy close to Paris.
  • German army completely collapses.
  • Ludendorff: "The black day of the German army."
  • Peace offensive fails, now is the time for delay.
8 Aug – 11 Nov 1918 Hundred Days Offensive.
  Decisive Allied victory
Collapse of the German Empire
  pushes Germans out of France
force retreat beyond Hindenberg Line.

No war is complete without mischief in the Middle-East.

Damascus, Emir Faisal, Lawrence of Arabia, Arab Revolt, Promises, Arabs "respect blunt sincerity of speech," Brits and French renege on promises and divvy up Ottoman Empire amongst themselves that they had promised to Faisal. Syria, Lebanon and the new Iraq, Faisal will never forgive Lawrence, British promises to the Jews.

The End-Game

29 Sept 1918 Bulgaria signs an armistice at  Saloniki.
4 Oct 1918 Germany asks Allies for an armistice

The Italians must make up for the loss at Caporetto.

24 Oct - 3 Nov 1918 Battle of Vittorio Veneto.
  Decisive Italian victory
End of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

"Most Italians see Vittorio Veneto as the final culmination of the Risorgimento nationalist movement, in which Italy was unified."

25 Oct 1918 Ludendorff proclaims - as soldiers, we will never surrender. -- The Dolchstoßlegende begins.
29 Oct 1918 Mutiny of Germany's navy
  New socialist regime fires Ludendorff, off to Sweden.
30 Oct 1918 Ottoman Empire signs the Armistice of Mudros
  Several armistices for Austria-Hungary
9 Nov 1918 Proclamation of a new republic
Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates, refuge in Netherlands.
11 Nov 1918 Armistice signed in train at Compiègne [Compiegne].

Aftermath - Germany

  • No monuments are made for the firing squads or the broken faces.
  • Only monuments to men achieving glory in war.
13 Dec 1918 Woodrow Wilson arrives in Paris.
4 Jan 1919 Peace Conference meets in Paris
5 Feb - 11 Aug 1919 Assembly at Weimar creates new constitution - the government is the Deutsches Reich -- known as the Weimar Republic after 1933. [See the cute part.]
21 June 1919 surrendered German fleet scuttled at Scapa Flow.
28 June 1919 Germans sign Treaty of Versailles
at Hall of Mirrors
where Wilhelm I was crowned in 1871.
FIVE YEARS TO THE DAY AFTER SARAJEVO.
  Article 231 - the War Guilt Clause
19 Nov 1919 Congress rejects the Treaty - Sen. Philander Knox explained why - this treaty promises more war.

Aftermath - Armenians.

1919 War crime trials convict Armernian genocide leaders, but they all escape to Europe.
1920 - 1922 Operation Nemesis - conspiracy, run by amateurs from Massachusetts, to kill seven leaders of Armenian Genocide.

 





Cable-Show - Hitler: Seven Days That Made the Monster
(06/08/2015)
[AHC HD]
© Icon Films and GroupM Entertainment Limited
2013 ITV Studios Global Entertainment
[ sub-menu ] - [ page at Iconfilms ] - [ top-menu ]
The Question
  • "What turned Adolf Hitler from an insignificant loser to the most powerful and feared man in Europe?"
Directed, Filmed, Edited: Alex Parkinson
Narrator: Matt K. Baker

DAY 1 - 2 October 1907

  • Rejected by the Vienna Academy of Art / Vienna Academy of Fine Arts.
  • a mama's boy, beaten by father, pampered by mother
  • four siblings had died at an early age
  • Brutal father dies
  • a narcissist, passive but with a fantasy of being a great artist
  • [He took a two-day entrance exam]
  • "smudge and rub" candlestick, 2 1/2 of the 3 tones needed for 3-D.
  • "hands are extremely difficult to paint"
  • Then, mother dies of cancer

DAY 2 - 10 November 1918

  • Germany surrenders.
  • Hitler is in the hospital
  • The 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, his surrogate family
  • Germans not prepared for the surrender
  • Hitler takes it as a second rejection
  • A new vision: Hitler is called by Destiny to avenge this surrender
  • The narcissist needs someone to blame, his father, art bureaucrats, then Jews

DAY 3 - 12 September 1919

  • Hitler's first public address.
  • Reverses his feelings from art school rejection
  • Began with rant at beer hall meeting of DAP
  • discovers that he is a spell-binder
  • Normal accent is Southern Bavarian, Hochdeutsch for speaking
  • with occasional lapses for emotional parts

DAY 4 - 8 November 1923

  • Beer Hall Putsch,
  • November 8-9.
  • during a state of emergency
  • after unrest and hyperinflation, kids use bank notes as building blocks.
  • First Munich, then Berlin, then all of Germany
  • Latest fantasy of the narcissist.
  • 2,000 march on War Ministry: 14 Nazis and 4 police die.
  • His will did not triumph; a third devastating rejection
  • At his trial for high treason, the judge gives him the floor
  • and he becomes a national celebrity
  • [ the "Bürgerbräukeller [Burgerbraukeller] belonged to
  • Bürgerliches Brauhaus [Burgerliches] a 19th-century brewery in Munich
  • ["burger" - civil, civic, bourgeois, middle-class]
  • Georg Elser's attempt on Hitler in 1939 took place at the building.
  • The Burgerbraukeller was opened in 1885.
  • It survived aerial bombing of Munich in WWII and was demolished in 1979.

DAY 5 - 29 October 1929

  • Wall Street Crash, beginning of Great Depression.
  • For most people, Hitler is no longer a factor
  • But 6 million in Germany are unemployed, affecting 30 million.
  • Hitler enters elective politics, and,
  • holds rallies all over, toning down the anti-Semitism
  • By 1933, President Paul von Hindenburg appoints him Chancellor.

DAY 6 - 2 August 1934

  • President Hindenburg dies.
  • Hitler becomes Führer [Fuhrer].
  • Law consolidated President and Chancellor in that one position.
  • law passed one day before Hindenburg's death
  • Army swears a sacred oath to him [medieval stuff?]

DAY 7 - 12 March 1938

  • Hitler invades Austria.
  • He is invited in,
  • Hitler thinks on his feet and
  • suddenly incorporates Austria into Germany.
  • wants all German-speakers in one country




Cable-Show - Nazis: Evolution of Evil
(AHC HD, 2014)
A World Media Rights Production for
Discovery Networks International.
© MMXIII World Media Rights Limited
© MMXIII Discovery Communications Europe Limited

[ sub-menu ] - [ web page at AHC ] - [ top-menu ]

Narrator: Terry MacDonald

See also "Adolf Hitler's Rise to Power"

1 - "The [Three] Misfits Gather"
 

NOTE: "The term Sturmabteilung predates the Nazi Party founding in 1919."

From Reich to Reich

  • German Empire (Deutsches Reich, 1871-1919)
  • Adolf Hitler - Austrian adopts Munich as his home.
  • Iron Cross, Class 2 and Class 1, and Wound Badge.
  • burning eyes
  • Germany loses war without France or Britain on German soil.
  • German army undefeated.
  • 11/11/1918 Armistice ends WW I.
  • [November criminals (Novemberverbrecher)]
  • This was a betrayal - Jews, communists - the stab in the back.
  • " I was confined to bed, the idea came - I will make Germany great."
  • [11:00] Back to Munich, "a traumatized misfit"
  • where the Socialists were in a power, a Marxist running Munich
  • 06/28/1919 - Treaty of Versailles - war reparations
  • Weimar Republic (Deutsches Reich, 1919-1933)

Getting into Politics

A Putsch is not a Revolution

  • [39:50] The Three await the moment to seize power.
  • Economic catastrophe for workers and middle-class.
  • Default on war payments so French occupy the Ruhr
  • Hitler heads the Bavarian Kampfbund ("Battle-league") 
  • General Erich Ludendorff, figurehead for the revolt
  • SA will take key police and military buildings in city.
  • Hitler arrives in a red Mercedes at the Burgerbraukeller.
  • The Beer Hall Putsch is on (11/8 - 11/9 - 1923).
  • Gustav von Kahr, two other Bavarian leaders, are there.
  • SA men take up strategic points in the city.
  • Ludendorff convinces the three leaders to join the coup.
  • [54:35] Hitler leaves the hall to Ludendorff.
  • Kahr voids his word, decides to suppress the Putsch.
  • When Hitler gets back, he waits - passive - a critical error.
  • Munich government declares Hitler guilty of high treason
  • Hitler and Ludendorff lead a 2000-man march - 16 Nazis killed.
  • Goering is seriously wounded and given morphine.
  • Hitler and Himmler flee the scene of the battle.

More die on an anniversary of the Putsch

  • 11/9/1939 - Georg Elser bombs the Putsch anniversary party
  • A Communist, he shoots, kills eight, but misses Hitler
  • No more anniversaries after that.

Hitler learned : People will not support fringe politics.

2 - "Becoming Respectable"

"Now Hitler wants to be a respectable politician with a message tailored for the masses, fashioned by a new master of deception, defended by a new force that's branded to kill and sworn to do their Fuehrer's evil bidding."

 

Trial for High Treason (02/1924 - 04/1924)

  • [  Alfred Rosenberg became temporary leader of the NSDAP ]
  • Accepts guilt, which is no guilt against the traitors of 1918
  • it was a revolution against a revolution
  • A dictator does not wait for the call; he wills it.
  • Hitler becomes news around the world
  • Sentenced to 5 years in Landsberg Prison, he serves 9 months
  • with his own photographer, 3-course meals, visitors, parties
  • Dictates Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess,
  • getting the lebensraum from Karl Haushofer (1869-1946)

Famous now, but the Nazis flop at the ballot box.

  • [16:25] Released during an economic boom
  • Billions of dollars in American loans pay off war debts
  • Germans are happy with the Weimar Republic
  • Hitler is banned from public speaking
  • Völkischer Beobachter has been banned by the State.
  • Nazi membership drops by a half.
  • Goering is addicted to morphine, straitjacket in a mental asylum.
  • In elections of 12/1924, Nazis get 3% of the vote
  • Mein Kampf (volume 1- 1925, volume 2 - 1926) flops - 10,000 copies.

Savior 1: Haushofer to the rescue.

  • "Sooner or later, we will have the majority."
  • [30:15] Hitler orders an image overhaul for the Party.
  • Haushofer helps Hitler with his presentation:
  • lederhosen rustic, technocrat in a lounge suit, uniformed for a rally.
  • Has him drink herbal tea instead of strong beer
  • Practice gesticulations in the mirror

Savior 2: Joseph Goebbels becomes the Fourth Misfit.

  • 5 foot-four Goebbels had a club foot, which kept him out of the War.
  • [He published a novel that failed:
    • Michael: Ein deutsches Schicksal in Tagebuchblattern (1929)]
  • A flatterer, he had "a schoolgirl crush" on Hitler,
  • to whom he wrote a fan letter during the Landsberg stay.
  • First meets him in the summer of 1925.
  • [42:35] Goebbels becomes his propaganda minister.
  • New brand: Nazi party for the people, not the extremists.
  • 11/1926 - Gauleiter of Berlin to wean it away from Communists.
  • 1927 - new Nazi newspaper, Der Angriff (The Attack)
  • Also modernist posters, flyers, tracts, to publicize the party
  • 1927 - speaking ban lifted
  • Goebbels second only to Hitler in public speaking:
  • sharp-tongued and sarcastic, not passionate and aggressive
  • Goebbels, the intellectual, uses the SA as his bodyguard,
  • thugs to beat up Communists and Jews in the streets.
  • "How I love these lads. We are creating uproar all over Berlin."
  • [ Also in 1927, Martin Bormann joins the Nazi Party and becomes part of Hitler's inner circle. ]

Hitler puts the final touches to his image.

  • Hitler wanted a more elite unit, so the SS becomes his bodyguard.
  • Trace Aryan ancestry back to the 18th century.
  • Hugo Boss (1885–1948), Nazi Party member, designs the uniforms.
The SS began in 1923 as a small, permanent guard unit known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, by then been reformed and renamed the "Schutz-Staffel" (protection squadron). Under Himmler's leadership (1929–45), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful units of the Third Reich

Still, the time was not right.

  • [53:10] Hitler targets the rustics, where the Jews are not an issue.
  • He wants to be respectable for business support.
  • Nazi membership increased four-fold since 1925.
  • Hitler warns that "Weimar is dancing on a volcano."
  • If the Americans call in their loans, the economy will collapse.
  • In May, 1928 elections: 2.6% of the vote.
  • The Communists did four times better.
  • Has the new image failed?
  • 10/24/1929 - the Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression
  • American banks calls in their loans.
  • German unemployment - 3% to 26% in 8 weeks.
  • Hitler looks like a prophet.

3 - "Seizing Power"

 

09/1930 election

  • Germany in economic meltdown;
  • Brot, Arbeiten, Freiheit. - Unsere letzte Hoffnung: Hitler.
  • Refuses to pay war compensation to the Allies.
  • Promises "a new deal" for the German workers.
  • Blames economic crisis on the Jews.
  • Strategy works: win 6 1/2 million votes. 2nd largest party.

Prepare for the Next Election

  • Increase profile of the Party
  • Propaganda comes before Ideas
  • Since 1927, annual rally in Nuremberg, torch processions at night.
  • It becomes massive and mesmerizing with the torches at night.
  • Make the people wait for the climactic appearance of Hitler

Head off an unexpected scandal

  • [16:30] Geli Raubal (1908-1931, age 23) affair
    • Jewish boyfriend the last straw
    • rumors of Hitler a coprophiliac in photos with her
    • news worldwide.
    • claim she was playing with gun, accidentally killed herself.
  • Never again photographed with a woman
  • Hitler is married to the German nation.
  • [29:15] postcards and coffee table books, just a regular bachelor guy

Stand for elections until he's Dictator

03/13/1932 - Hitler gets 11 millions votes for President
  • He lost. Hitler is a handicap for his movement. For most Germans, his personal appearance is repellent. The epileptic behavior, the wild gesticulations. the foaming at the mouth, alternately shifty and staring eyes. But in less than a year he would be Chancellor. -- Third Reich: The Rise (2010) - FIRST DOC TO SAY WHAT SEEMS OBVIOUS!
  • 07/1932 election - Nazis get 37% of the vote.
  • 11/1932 election - Nazis biggest party in Reichstag.
  • Hitler wins over the industrialists, the generals, the mittlestadt
  • Franz von Papen hosts Hitler and Oskar von Hindenburg.
  • 01/30/1933 - Paul von Hindenburg appoints him Chancellor.
  • Hitler calls another election.
  • 02/10/1933 - radio broadcast
  • 02/27/1933 - Reichstag fire - Marinus van der Lubbe, Communist
  • [ This overcomes repulsion? ]
  • Hitler sends the SA and the SS to purge body politic of Communists.
  • [ Hitler "burns down" all institutions of freedom - speech, press. ]
  • 03/23/1933 - Nazis take 44% of the vote, and,
  • with help of Catholic party, have majority to pass Enabling Act,
    allowing the Nazi Party to enforce laws without the Reichstag.
  • Hitler suspends the Constitution
  • 03/23/1933 -" the last democratic election" until end of war.
  • [Thank God! How many frigging elections does a country need?]

By now, there are many rivals to eliminate.

  • 6/30/1934 - 07/02/1934 - Night of the Long Knives, the Röhm Putsch
  • Tea Party at the Chancellery garden for his cabinet and their families
  • SS masterminds the killing of all internal enemies at same time.
  • "Almost pure Godfather 2"
  • Gustav von Kahr, a saboteur of the Putsch, killed
  • Kurt von Schleicher, former Chancellor, and wife, shot at door
  • Willi Schmid, music critic, same name as an SA man
  • Ernst Roehm - Hitler informed at the party and he nods.
  • "Germany is now ruled by gangsters."
  • 77 officially, 400 altogether, once the nearest and dearest
  • 7/13/1934 - Hitler brags about what he has done in the Reichstag.

Final Steps to Dictatorship

  • 07/14/1933 - non-Nazi political parties outlawed.
  • 08/02/1934 - President Paul von Hindenburg dies.
  • 08/02/1934 - Hitler abolishes Presidency; Hitler a dictator, the Fuehrer.
  • 1934 - the SA massively outnumbers the German army.
4 - "In Power"
 

4/1/1933 - First attempt on the Jews fails [4:00-7:00]

  • Blame Jews for economic woes.
  • Brownshirts lead a national day of boycott of Jewish shops.
  • But it is called off after one day.
    • This day does not have a name, like Kristallnacht?
  • The German people are not interested in anti-Semitism.
  • They still patronize the Jewish shops.
  • American diplomat says, it was "unpopular with the working classes and the educated circles of the middle classes."
  • Hitler will not mention the Jews again for four years.
This program does not mention:
"The Anti-Nazi Boycott of 1933 was a boycott of German products by foreign critics of the Nazi Party  in response to anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany following the rise of Adolf Hitler, commencing with his appointment as Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Those in the US, the UK and other places worldwide who opposed Hitler's policies developed the boycott and its accompanying protests to encourage Nazi Germany to end the regime's anti-Jewish practices."

Public works for employment:

  • Autobahns, built by large numbers of workers,
  • excite people with prospect of travel at will,
  • Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF) replaces labor unions with worker and management committees,
  • all unions outlawed

[15:05] Volksgemeinschaft ["people's community"]

  • special people in a special nation;
  • takes message of Nazism into everyday life, such as dinner;
  • leagues for boys and girls who have fun while wearing uniforms
  • leisure programs for workers, holidays for half-off the market rate,
  • newlyweds receive copy of Mein Kampf.
  • all to make Germans slowly come to view Jews as an under class
  • Volkswagen, designed by Ferdinand Porsche (1875-1951)

Secretly preparing for war while proclaiming peace

  • [27:05] dwarfs public spending and creates employment
  • armed showdown with Russia inevitable ,
  • lebensraum to the east where the Slavs live,
  • plans kept secret by a man elected as "devoted to peace,"
  • "restore German pride," not prepare for war,
  • rearmament is an antidote to humiliation of Versailles,
  • 03/1935 - conscription begins and swells the army,
  • Goebbels agents eavesdrop on conversations to gauge feelings.

1935 - The Nuremberg Race Laws [ German Racial Policy ]

  • [40:50] define Jew, anyone with 3 Jewish grandparents
  • 1 or 2, then mischlinge, mongrels
  • Creating scapegoat of the Jews is working now.
  • ban marriage between Aryans and Jews

March 7, 1936 - Re-occupy the Rhineland - contra Versailles - goes well.

Lucky break

  • Crisis of shortage of foreign currency impoverishes Germans
  • But then economy picks up in 1937.
  • Unemployment goes down to virtually nothing.
  • Economics good, Hitler seems like a genius
  • So now does Hitler have enough leeway to attack the Jews?

1937/1938 - Second attempt on the Jews

  • [54:50] 1937 - Hitler mentions Jews first time in four years.
  • 250,000 Jews leave Germany
  • "Jews are cause of their own misfortune."
  • Secret police and Gestapo unleashed on Jews
  • 11/7/1938 - Ernst vom Rath, diplomat,
    • shot five times by a Jewish teenager, Herschel Grynszpan,
    • dying two days later (11/9/1938)
    • is the perfect excuse for
  • 9-10 November, 1938 - Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, or ReichskristallnachtPogromnacht , or Novemberpogrome.
  • "Hitler has won the hearts and minds of the German people."
    BUT - Hitler did not approve of it. The entire world condemned it. This was the brainchild of Goebbels alone. -- Nazis: Ultimate Evil (2014)
5 - "Preparing for War"
 

12/1937 - Hitler purges generals against quick expansionism.

  • Werner von Blomberg - 25 year-old wife a former prostitute
  • Werner von Fritsch - homosexual - abhorrent to Nazis
  • Hitler makes himself supreme commander of German army
  • Biggest problem - he declared himself publicly a man of peace.

Early military conquests void first plot against Hitler. [18:30]

  • 03/1938 - The Anschluss - taking Austria - cheering crowds
  • Sudentenland - agents provoke unrest, get news coverage
  • 9/1938 - military officers go to a Cathedral to be relieved of their vows to support Hitler. They want to arrest him when he invades Sudentenland.
  • <30:00> 09/1938 - Chamberlain agrees to vote on Sudentenland
  • Hitler rages - rules changed; wants Sudentenland without a vote.
  • Chamberlain says:
      • "Hitler's threatened invasion of the Sudentenland is merely a quarrel in a faraway country between people of whom we know nothing."
  • Conspirators check their weapons, ready to take down Hitler.
  • <45:00> Munich: Chamberlain agrees if it's his last territorial demand.
  • 30 Sept 1938: Treaty of Munich - Britain and Fance accept Hitler's taking of the Sudentenland.
  • The plot against Hitler collapses. - none of them are found out.
  • 03/15/1939: Hitler takes all of Czechoslovakia, again without firing a shot.
  • No response from the Allies.
  • To the Germans, Hitler is amazing.

[ German Agreement with the Soviet Union

23 Aug 1939: Molotov-Rippentrop Pact

the treaty included a secret protocol that divided territories of Romania, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland into German and Soviet "spheres of influence", anticipating potential "territorial and political rearrangements" of these countries. 
]

Then the Allies react [55:30]

  • 09/01/1939: German warship in Danzig opens fire on Poland.
  • German troops pour across the border into Poland.
  • 09/03/1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany.
  • Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland
  • "war at its most brutal; no one has ever seen this before."
  • 09/17/1939 - Stalin invades Poland from his side.
  • [ BRITAIN AND FRANCE DON'T DECLEARE WAR ON USSR. ]
  • Winter 1939: Blitzkrieg against western Europe.
    • France, Belgium, Holland, Norway
  • 22 June 1940 - Hitler-France armistice signed in Compiegne train.
  • 06/28/1940: Paris - "I am the greatest strategic genius of all time."
  • 06/1940: Italy allies with Germany.
  • 09/1940: Japan allies with Germany.

Germans think all of Hitler's wars will be over soon. He is so good. The devastation is just beginning.

  • Blitzkrieg launched on western Europe.
  • winter 1940-1941 - bombing of England
  • 10 July - 31 Oct 1940 - The Battle of Britain

 

6- "Hitler's Biggest Blunder"
 

05/10/1941 - Rudolf Hess parachutes into Scotland.

  • He's losing his position as Hitler's greatest confidante.
  • If he can make peace with Britain, he will restore himself.
  • Nazi leadership - seething mass of conspiracy.
  • Hitler goes berserk.
  • Goebbels spin: Hess is a madman.

The invasion of Russia - not his biggest blunder? [8:38]

  • 6/22/1941 - invades Russia - rapid progress promotes delusion
  • Hitler thinks he has won the war.
  • Russians fight back, Germans slow down
  • [16:00] Hitler won't listen to the doubts of his generals.
  • Russian winter sets in; temperatures -32 F.
  • " You couldn't urinate in the open air."
  • German army beats a tactical retreat.
  • The six week war has now taken five months.
  • Goebbels spin: Lies about the loss, presents Hitler as a genius.

Now comes Hitler's greatest blunder.

  • 12/7/1941 - Japan enters the war
  • Hitler sees America as a mixture of inferior peoples.
  • Americans don't have the stomach for a fight.
  • 12/11/1941 - He declares war on the USA - his biggest blunder.

"No one will be the same after Stalingrad."

  • [ July 17, 1942 OR 23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943 ]
  • [29:10] Spring 1942 - warm weather - Germans besiege Stalingrad.
  • 11/1942 - Russians encircle Germans at Stalingrad;
  • 250,000 Germans have no supplies.
  • Hitler holed up at wolf's lair (Wolfsschanze) in eastern Poland.
  • He won't let the generals do a tactical retreat.
  • Hitler says that the Germans will fight to the last man.
  • Goering's air drop to the Germans is a farce.
  • Out of 800 tons daily, he can deliver 100 tons.
  • Goering, morphine addict, most concerned with his art looting.
  • 02/1943 - Commander defies Hitler and surrenders.
  • 100,000 soldiers and 24 generals taken prisoner.
  • [43:40] Highest point of Goebbels - he spins this as a tragedy for the Germans to overcome with grit and heroism and endurance.
  • We want "total war - shortest war." [WHAT DOES THIS MEAN???]

America crosses the Atlantic.

  • 06/1943 - North Africa
  • 07/1943 - Italy
  • The folly of Hitler's declaration of war on America is evident.
  • [55:50] Allies bomb German cities, day and night.
  • 8/1943 - Industrial Hamburg is devastated in a fire storm.
  • 8/20/1943 - Himmler becomes Minister of the Interior - Hitler can not rely on the good will of the German people and he needs a dictator over them.
Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbors, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II. Strategic bombing is a military strategy which is distinct from both close air support of ground forces and tactical air power.

Hitler in denial, withdrawn to the wolf's lair

  • Eva Braun is with him.
  • Starts to tremble, maybe Parkinson's.
  • Dr Theodor Morell (1886-1948) attends to Hitler
    • testoviron (testosterone)
    • tempidorm - a barbiturate suppository - (medicatione.com)
    • sympathol
    • quadro-nox, a sedative
    • orchikrin
    • optalidon - pain killer and analgesic
    • obstinol - for chronic constipation

Other sources mention

  • Schering Testoviron,
  • animal testicular extracts (Orchicithin, Orchikrin, Prostacrinum).
  • strychnine
  • intravenous cocaine

"He has always depended on success hiding the shocking reality of his regime. But now he's losing the war. The German people will inevitably start waking up to the truth and some, at last, will fight back.".

7 - "The Final Solution"
 

Hitler's aware that Germans offended by horrific policies.

  • The "Action T4" 1939 euthanasia campaign for disabled kept secret.
  • T4 began in 1939 - gave phony causes of death like measles.
  • Requires Goebbels to persuade Germans to exterminate Jews.
  • The Eternal Jew (1940), his film, is a box-office flop.
  • Hitler will not put his name to any genocidal document.
  • The Yellow Star - meant to alienate Germans from the Jews.
  • Propaganda - they are responsible for their own destruction.
  • 11/30/1941: 1000 Jewish war heroes sent to Latvia by mistake and shot.
    • 10/1943 - recording exists of a Himmler talk on the Final Solution.
    • "This is a page of glory, never mentioned and never to be mentioned."
    • Sure sign that what they've done is unacceptable to German people.
    • Had to keep that secret for the Germans would be appalled.

Experiments on Places

  • Not in Germany, where people can see.
  • People learn of T4 and worry about "our wounded soldiers."
  • Catholic Bishop von Galen denounced T4.
  • So T4 was halted in Germany.
  • Eastern Europe is the best place.

The Chosen Deception

  • Reinhard Heydrich: German Jews are being resettled at Theresienstadt.
    • [ Hitler called him, the man with an iron heart.]
    • [ He heads up the Gestapo for Night and Fog. ]
    • [ He experiments in tortures for interrogation. ]
  • Newsreels show it a safe place with gardens and an orchestra.
  • Adolf Eichmann in charge of deporting German Jews secretly.
  • Regular trains with tickets, food, and money lulls the victims
  • Fake railway stations with painted wooden clock, hands at six.
  • Then shower, shaved, stripped, run into chambers - in 90 minutes.

Experiments on method:

  • shooting,
  • "sardine packing" - shooting at mass graves. dug by the condemned
  • Shooting takes a toll on the morale of the German soldiers.
  • lethal injection, used by T4.
  • Showers for carbon monoxide, also at T4.
  • Cattle cars to Poland, then the showers.
  • kill 50 Jews at a time by carbon monoxide in a truck.
  • It's all just a matter of logistics for bureaucrats to solve.
  • Belzec - static combustion engine pumps exhaust fumes in a chamber.
  • ovens to burn the bodies
  • [ A humane method prevents psychological harm to the killers.
  • gas vans precursors to gas chambers.-- Nazis: Ultimate Evil (2014) ]

Principals

  • Goering in charge of Jewish affairs.
  • Himmler's SS will carry it out.

Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942, assassinated), Himmler's assistant.

  • Heydrich is a champion fencer, fighter pilot, skilled violinist.
  • Heydrich's Einsatzgruppen kill thousands of Polish Jews.
  • Heydrich gets Goering's signature on a plan for Final Solution.
  • He had the largest state funeral of the Nazi era.
  • 1/20/1942 - Wannsee Conference.
  • Adolf Eichmann kept the minutes of the conference.
  • Heydrich at Wannsee informs that killing all Jews is Hitler's desire.
  • Christian Wirth (1885-1944)  Operation Reinhard for Polish Jews. 
  • Named after Reinhard after his assassination.

Commercial Partnership [54:10]

  • By 12/1942 - one million dead.
  • IG Farben leases Jewish workers from the SS for its factories.
  • SS makes lots of money.

Rosenstraße

  • The Rosenstrasse Protest (2/27/1943)
  • Aryan women revolted when their Jewish husbands were arrested.
  • Nazis allowed them to go back to the wives.
  • They reprieved 35 Jews who had already been sent to Auschwitz.

DESPITE ALL THIS EVIDENCE, A PC CONCLUSION :

"And so the German people become complicit in one of the worst crimes in history."

8 - "Plots and Delusions"
 

Hitler loses middle-management

  • Hitler's hold on the people is their belief that he is a genius.
  • after Stalingrad (02/1943), it looks hopeless
  • Destruction rains down on the homeland.
  • Hitler is isolated and cracking up, living on intravenous cocaine.
  • 04/20/1944 - Goebbels stages 55th birthday party celebrations
  • His spies tell him that the people still want to stand with Hitler.
  • Hitler has given the army impossible orders:
    • no retreat ever,
    • attack without troops or equipment.
  • The colonels, the middle ranks, are outraged.

Solution: make the Nazi State overthrow itself.

  • Two colonels want to kill Hitler with a replacement government on hand.
  • Additionally, they both recognize the sick nature of the regime.
  • Hitler has great security and changes his itinerary often.
  • [15:20] "The solution they come up with is astonishing."
  • Operation Valkyrie sparks Berlin reserve for a slave-labor uprising.
  • Stauffenberg is in charge of Operation Valkyrie .
  • He adds the SS as a potential threat to be neutralized.
  • They add the death of the Fuehrer as a trigger.
  • von Tresckow's wife neatly types up the modified orders.
  • Kill Hitler, initiate Valkyrie, then Germany has new leaders.

The bomb plot (20 July Plot)

  • 6/6/1944 - D-Day
  • In the East, the Soviets launch an offensive.
  • Panzer Divisions await Hitler's orders to attack.
  • Hitler has ordered not to be awakened before noon.
  • The Allies secure their beachheads.
  • 6/7/1944 - Stauffenberg in the Alps to brief Hitler on Valkyrie.
  • Aborted attempts, trying to get Goering and Himmler with Hitler.
  • [30:25] 07/20/1944: Stauffenberg sets the bomb for Hitler alone.
  • Stauffenberg rushes back to Berlin to launch the coup.
  • Hitler survives the bomb in the wolf's lair; four die.
  • von Stauffenberg and 3 are executed; Tresckow commits suicide

Himmler makes lemonade out of lemons

  • Himmler arrests 7,000 men, women, and children.
  • A public show trial will let the people know Hitler is still in charge
  • Roland Freisler (1893-1945), the screaming judge, condemns 5,000.
  • There is no doubt what happens to those who betray the Reich.
  • [43:15] Hitler learns that Erwin Rommel had known of the plot.
  • 10/14/1944 - Rommel takes poison to keep his family alive.
  • Goebbels urges again "Totaler Krieg – Kürzester Krieg." [Kurzester]

Hitler's last brainstorm.[53:45]

  • 09/1944 - Hitler has found the Allied weakness: the port of Antwerp.
  • He calls in two generals to plan the attack
  • He will use all of his last strategic reserve.
  • Tanks will need to capture fuel in order to reach Antwerp.
  • 12/16/1944 - His Panzers make a 50 mile run before the Allies react.
  • Bad weather had protected them from Allied air attack.
  • But the Allies stop the advance in the Ardennes.
  • The war is over.
9 - "End Game"

"This is the story of how the Nazi Regime keeps lying to the very end, as it collapses into plots, power struggles, madness, and one final, great betrayal of the German people."

 

Hitler

Stooped, aged, shaking, drugged, in Berlin Fuehrerbunker.
Some say Hitler had a bunker obsession.

Deluded about super weapons

  • Me 262 - first jet fighter - 600 mph - no impact on war.
  • V-2, first ballistic missile, first human object to enter space.
  • as Germans retreat, rocket launch sites are captured

03/19/1945 - The Nero Decree.

  • "Demolitions on Reich Territory Decree "
  • destroy German infrastructure to keep it from the Allies
  • named after Nero starting the Great Fire of Rome in 64.
  • If Germany loses the war, the people deserve nothing.
  • The German people have let their Fuehrer down.

04/20 - Celebrates 56th birthday during a Russian shelling of Berlin

  • He has cake
  • He plays with toy soldiers.
  • Goebbels has him greet Hitler Youth, pat their cheeks.
  • Goering leaves the party to head to the Bavarian Alps.
  • Himmler leaves the party, pretending he is still loyal.

He plans his last stand, led by General Steiner, formerly of the SS.

04/22 - Soviets encircle Berlin. Hitler angry at his generals.

  • He finally tells them all to go home.
  • Generals think he has abdicated, and is no longer Fuehrer.
  • Still bullet holes in buildings from the war.

04/25 - Russian and American forces split the Reich in half.

04/29 - Last Will and Testament dictated to secretary Traudl Junge.

  • telegram from Goering to confirm his succession
  • news of Himmler's negotiations of surrender
  • news that Red troops 2 blocks from the Reich Chancellery.

04/29 - Marries Eva Braun in the bunker.
04/29 - Kisses her in front of his acolytes, a first.
04/30 - cyanide capsule (age 33) and Walther PPK
05/01 - A last lie to the people - Hitler fell fighting Bolshevism.

"Who Won World War II?" by Eric Margolis at LRC.

Goebbels - loyal to the end

Maintain illusion that Nazi monsters are noble heroes

  • with the movie, Kolberg (1945) - directed by Veit Harlan,
  • Detailing Kolberg's resistance to Napoleon in 1807.
  • Troops called from duty to perform as extras
  • Opened in a theater, 01/30/1945, later others, then vanished
  • Almost no one sees it.

04/30 - He becomes Chancellor, rewarded by Hitler for his loyalty.
As Chancellor, tries to deal with Marshall Zhukov, who rejects him

05/01 - Death

  • has his dentist anesthetize his six children with morphine.
  • They cannot live in a world without Nazism.
  • He and Magda put cyanide in the mouths of the kids,
  • then kill themselves.
  • SS soldiers fire into the bodies as a coup de grâce.
Goering - the great survivor
  • 04/20- leaves party and goes to Berchtesgaden in the Alps
  • 04/23 - hears of Hitler's breakdown and "abdication."
  • So, by laws of succession, he can take over.
  • Telegram to Hitler, let me take over.
  • Martin Bormann gives it to Hitler as evidence of Goering's treachery.
  • Bormann sees a chance to take over the Reich.
  • Goering surrenders to the USA, believing he can survive.
  • He expected to be treated as a head of state.
  • Eisenhower will not see him.
  • second-highest-ranking Nazi official tried at Nuremberg
  • death by potassium cyanide the night before scheduled hanging

Himmler - let's make a deal.

01/1945 - gas chambers at Auschwitz blown-up.
evacuates inmates from Poland to Germany for a bargaining chip.
02/03/1945- Himmler is open for business.

Talks with Jean-Marie Musy of the Swiss Confederation

  • Jews for 20 million Swiss francs paid in the US
  • Thinks he might be the future leader of Germany.
  • 1700 Jews get to Switzerland for promise of $250,000.
  • The deal called off when news leaks out.

04/20 - leaves the birthday party

04/21 - Talk with Count Folke Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross

  • position himself as the reasonable Nazi
  • wants a negotiated settlement with himself as chief negotiator
  • for release of 31,000 prisoners for money, ultimately not paid
  • with Fuehrer's abdication, tells Bernadotte he is the leader
  • as head of SS and police, he can control Germany
  • wants to surrender to Britain and USA, but not to Russia.
  • His is dismissed from all posts in the German government.

Spotted trying to disappear among the prisoners of war.

05/23 - Death

  • The Brits find an empty brass cyanide case
  • They initiate a full body search; the doctor goes for the mouth
  • Himmler bites him, steps back, takes capsule out of his tooth,
  • bites down on the capsule, dies in agony on the floor
  • despite attempts to make him vomit out the poison.
Martin Bormann
  • Want to take over the Reich after Goering's treachery.
  • 04/29 - made head of Nazi Party
  • 05/02 - killed running from the Chancellery.

Karl Dönitz.

  • 04/29 - Hitler named Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as his successor.
  • He is appointed Reich President.
  • 05/02 - Berlin surrenders to the Soviets
  • 05/07 - Germany finally surrenders - Doenitz?
  • highest-ranking Nazi official tried at Nuremberg
  • Imprisoned for 10 years in Spandau Prison [West Berlin].
  • Freed in 1956, he lived until 1980.
10 - "Aftermath"
 

Denazification of the leaders is a must

  • abolish the Nazi Party
  • Identify its criminal members
  • Bring them to justice

[16:05] Try them at Nuremberg

  • where the Nazi Race Laws were promulgated
  • where there still stands a building big enough
  • Enlarge for 350 press and 400 civilians
  • Meet out death and prison sentences

[28:00] Denazification of the people is a must

  • Concentrate on the government workers
  • Make them fill out questionnaires
  • Processing 500,000 will take 2 years
  • And there are 7 1/2 million more

EXCEPT - THE COLD WAR HAS BEGUN

We need Rocket Scientists

  • Wernher von Braun (1912-1977) was head rocket scientist
  • He used slave labor at his factories
  • 765 scientists in total come to America [Wikipedia: 1,500]
  • No denazification for them
  • Operation Paperclip (1949-1990)
  • Truman had forbad Nazi recruitment
  • American intelligence re-writes their biographies

[42:55] We need intelligence officers who know Russia

  • Gestapo agents have infiltrated Russian intelligence cells
  • Gestapo and SS have data files on the Red Army.
  • Klaus Barbie (1913-1991, age 77)
    • sadistic killer
    • Butcher of Lyons in the Holocaust
    • 14,000 deaths, including 44 Jewish orphans
    • Send him down the Ratline to South America
    • Give him new name, Klaus Altman,
    • Give him new passport
    • Becomes wealthy working for Bolivian dictators.
    • 32 years before he is ever seen again.

[56:35] EXCEPT - some can't forget the original crimes

[fin]




Cable-Show - Hitler: The Rise and Fall
[ sub-menu ] - [ web page ] - [ top-menu ]
(2015)
[AHC HD]
© 3DD Productions MMXV
# Title Date Subjects
1 Gradual Beginnings. 04/13/2015  
2 The Implementation of Terror. 04/20/2015  
3 Death, Destruction, and Legacy. 04/27/2015  
Narrator: Erik Bergman


Hitler: The Rise and Fall: 1 - Gradual Beginnings

Many Jews in his early life were positive
  • the doctor for his mother and his family
  • the dealer for all his artworks in Vienna
  • <16:00> His superior in the army who recommended him for the Iron Cross
  • Why never promoted above NCO rank? No leadership qualities.
  • Seemed to be a loner, not admired by his fellow soldiers.

1919 - Peace Terms of Versailles

  • All Germans regard the terms as an outrage - article 231.
  • Germany declared sole cause of the war, when it was the Allied encirclement of Germany that caused the war.
  • Army limited to 100,000, including cooks and bottle-washers.
  • No ships, no war planes.
  • Promises of Wilson and Lloyd-George had not been delivered.
  • Hitler blamed the home front - socialist, Marxist, Jews.
  • Left wing parties, one-third of the electorate at the time.

1923 - Dawes Plan.

  • <28:00> USA will lend Germany money so it can pay reparations to Britain and France so they can pay back their debts to the USA.
  • Stabilize German currency from the hyperinflation of 1923.
  • Germans, blaming the Allies, felt no need to do anything about it.

Hitler goes to school

  • At Camp Lechfeld [no Wikipedia] , German lecturers attack Bolshevism.
  • Hitler, an apt student, is recruited to do speech making himself.
  • Adolf Lentz [no Wikipedia] - Darwinism in the service of racism.

Martin Bormann

  • Hitler's most trusted disciple.
  • jioined a Freikorp, a vigilante group of the 1920s
  • sent to prison for murder
  • the Machiavellian manipulator

Italy excites Adolf Hitler's imagination. <44:00>

  • 22 - 29 Oct 1922 - Mussolini leads his black-shirts in a march on Rome.
  • 30 Oct 1922 - King Victor Emmanuel appoints Mussolini Prime Minister.
  • [So Mussolini attained power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).]
  • Hitler thinks Mussolini had just lead a coup d'etat.
  • but Mussolini attained power in a perfectly constitutional way. -- Cute!
  • So Hitler models his beerhall putsch on his fantasy of Mussolini,
  • but at least he gets martyrs out it, along with the holy Blood Flag.
  • [Victor Emmanuel III only abdicates his throne in 1946.]

The Swastika

  • Said to be designed by Hitler himself
  • "a fantastic piece of graphic design,"
  • Old Buddlhist symbol of the sun, the swastika
  • set askew in a dynamic way,
  • black in a white circle, not touching the circumference,
  • "giving it a kind of vibration and dynamism,"
  • all centered upon a flag of red "to stand for the socialist party"
  • "And it just goes, 'Whoosh.'"

At Landsberg Prison

  • He realizes, "I am the one."
  • Served less than a year of his sentence, writing Mein Kampf.
  • The publisher suggested the simple name.
  • Chapter 5 in Mein Kampf is about propaganda. It's famous.
  • On release, he is forbidden from public speaking for a few years.
  • The ban is relaxed in 1927. He goes to town.


Hitler: The Rise and Fall: 2 - The Implementation of Terror

After the illusion of prosperity, the reality of the Crash.

  • After the Dawes Plan, economy seems to improve.
  • American banks invest.
  • But the money is spent on non-productive things, like concert halls and swimming pools.
  • 1929 - Wall Street Crash
  • American banks withdraw their loans, often 14-day loans
  • German industry collapses, especially the building trades
  • 1932: 40% unemployment
  • 1933 - In a second election, the Nazi vote declines.
  • So they put everything into an election in the state of Lippe.
  • This win gets them attention.
  • <17:30> 1934 - Eventually, Hitler becomes Chancellor,
  • then the Fuhrer after the Fire.
  • All the while, he has no rational plans for recovery.

Hitler's loose ends

  • By the late twenties, word gets back to Germany about Stalin's collectivizations and mass hunger.
  • German peasants no more want collectivization than large land holders.
  • "The Nazis take Germany by lawful means. Hitler's plan has worked."
  • Take care of a problem from within: Night of the Long Knives.
  • Himmler fakes a case against Rohm, saying that he was paid 12 million Deutsch Marks by France to overthrow Hitler.
  • Also, Rohm's homosexuality discredits him.

Propaganda for the whole nation

  • <29:00> Hitlerjugend (HJ), Bund Deutscher Madel (BDM)
  • Reich Chamber of Culture for all other organizations and societies
  • Volksempfanger, the people's radio, created by Goebbels
  • Literally every human activity came under state control.
  • 1934: Hitler's pick of Leni Riefenstahl to film Nuremberg rally upset Goebbels.
  • 150 different uniforms!
  • Hitler, and only him, goes to a catwalk show for new soldier uniforms.
  • 1936 Olympics - Hitler eases the propaganda, Jesse Owens is a big hit.
  • Hitler, briefly popular around the world.
  • Then the terror, the propaganda, and the anti-semitism starts up again.
  • <44:15> Stories of the Jewish world conspiracy.
  • Anti-semitism was not native to Germany, where Jews sought refuge!
  • Strong anti-semitism in Austria and Poland.
  • No one wanted war; Rhineland occupation and Anschluss done peacefully.
  • German pride restored! Can't we stop now?
  • Eastern countries are the breadbasket of Europe.
  • <56:00> Mass euphoria in Germany.
  • In just 10 years - He is who he said he is -- our savior.


Hitler: The Rise and Fall: 3 - Death, Destruction, and Legacy

Re-armament, Re-militarization, Re-occupation
  • Britain and France turned blind eye to breach of Treaty of Versailles.
  • But self-determination was a principle of Versailles.
  • Since the Hohenzollerns fell, each state became independent - Austrians, Hungarians, Czechs, Yugoslavs. Why should the Germans be different?
  • 30 Sept 1938 - Hitler gets back most of the land lost by the Versailles Treaty.
  • but there was no war - which people loved.

Propaganda

  • The insight of Joseph Goebbels - the best propaganda is disguised as something else -- entertainment.
  • Terror was the price for political dissent.
  • Hitler believed his own legend - he was divinely appointed.

Then Hitler goes over the limit.

  • <15:30> 1 Sept 1939 Poland - Britain and France honored treaty obligations.
  • Hitler never thought they would do that.
  • World War II begins.
  • Bypasses the Maginot line and takes France.
  • But even after the first blitzkrieg takings, Hitler is satisfied that it was over.
  • In a few weeks, defeat those that they couldn't defeat in four years.
  • German army appears to be stronger than Britain.
  • Churchill keeps Britain from accepting a German peace offer
  • Didn't have the offensive air power to bomb England - miscalculation.

Hess debacle

  • Speculation - did Hitler authorize this?
  • learned to fly specifically for this purpose
  • Augsburg to Scotland
  • 14th Duke of Hamilton had been sympatico before the war
  • crash lands on his estate
  • Duke send him right off to the authorities
  • Hitler furious - this was just before the invasion of Russia.

Invasion of Russia - this is really going too far-

  • largest invasion in the history of warfare
  • along a 2,000 mile front.
  • four million soldiers into soviet lands
  • determines the outcome of the war
  • <28:15> But despite failure in Britain, Hitler is still popular
  • What Charles XII of Sweden and Napoleon could not do - conquer Russia
  • Knew he could not conquer England. This will convince them.
  • He never expected a fight in Russia.
  • March on Moscow is the end of the campaign, Operation Barbarossa.
  • Germans begin to turn against Hitler.
  • Defeated in 1944.

Jews under Nazi control

  • The more land Germany acquires, the more Jews it controls.
  • 600,000 in 1933
  • After June, 1941 - many millions - especially in Poland.
  • Madagascar Plan - establish a Jewish colony - never mind
  • Wannsee Conference - formalize holocaust - no need for Hitler

Hitler's fantasy world

  • <42:15> autumn 1944 - generals tell Hitler that all is lost
  • An hour later, they leave the meeting, eyes shining
  • "The Fuhrer has convince us that we can win the war."
  • Hitler thinks the German people had betrayed him.
  • Mass suicides of the Nazi faithful.

Belsen

  • <54:45> Eric Brown, at the liberation, questioned the principals
  • Nazi women guards
  • Josef Kramer, the commandant
  • Irma Grese, lady commandant - "worst human being I ever met."
  • Shouts "Heil Hitler" and refuses to talk.
After all of this, Germany is divided again.


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